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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Norepinephrine stimulates calprotectin expression in human monocytic cells.

Background and objective: Calprotectin is composed of two proteins, S100A8 and S100A9, which are S100 family members, and is detected in gingival crevicular fluid and gingival tissue with inflammation. The release and production of calprotectin are regulated by lipopolysaccharides of periodontopathic bacteria and cytokines. Emotional or psychological stress, a risk factor of periodontal disease, is transmitted by stress modulators including norepinephrine and cortisol. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of stress on calprotectin expression using norepinephrine and cortisol. Methods: U-937 cells, a human monocytic cell line, were incubated with norepinephrine in the presence or absence of beta- or alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists, or with cortisol. The expression of S100A8/S100A9 mRNAs was examined by northern blotting and the amount of calprotectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The DNA binding activity of C/EBPalpha (CCAAT enhancing binding protein), a transcription factor, was examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Results: Norepinephrine stimulated the expression of S100A8/S100A9 mRNAs via beta-adrenergic receptors in U-937 cells and significantly increased calprotectin production to about 3.6-fold that of the control. However, cortisol had no effect on calprotectin expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Norepinephrine elevated C/EBPalpha DNA binding activity, but cortisol did not increase the activity. Conclusion: Norepinephrine, a stress modulator, stimulated calprotectin expression in human monocytic cells. Calprotectin expression may be regulated by stress in addition to inflammatory factors.[1]


  1. Norepinephrine stimulates calprotectin expression in human monocytic cells. Kido, J., Hayashi, N., Kataoka, M., Shinohara, Y., Nagata, T. J. Periodont. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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