The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Human keratinocytes express functional Toll-like receptor 3, 4, 5, and 9.

Keratinocytes are continuously in contact with external stimuli and have the capacity to produce several soluble mediators. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized, among others, by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The functional responses of keratinocytes to different PAMPs have not yet been fully established. Here we show that keratinocytes constitutively express TLR1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10 mRNA, but not TLR7 and 8. Stimulation of keratinocytes with TLR3, 4, 5, and 9 ligands resulted in differential immune-associated responses. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), CCL2, and C chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) release was enhanced in response to all PAMPs tested, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Only TLR9 ligand CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and TLR3 ligand poly-I:C could additionally induce type I IFNs. CCL27 production was selectively induced by poly-I:C and flagellin, whereas CXCL9 and CXCL10 were exclusively induced by CpG-ODNs and/or poly-I:C. Upregulation of ICAM-1, HLA-DR, HLA-ABC, FasR, and CD40 was mainly observed in response to poly-I:C, flagellin, and lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, PAMP triggering resulted in the phosphorylation of phosphorylated-IkappaB alpha and in the nucleus translocation of NF-kappaB p65. Altogether, these findings stress an unexpectedly multifaceted role of keratinocytes in innate immunity as evident by their differential, TLR-mediated responses to PAMPs associated with different classes of pathogens.[1]


  1. Human keratinocytes express functional Toll-like receptor 3, 4, 5, and 9. Lebre, M.C., van der Aar, A.M., van Baarsen, L., van Capel, T.M., Schuitemaker, J.H., Kapsenberg, M.L., de Jong, E.C. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2007) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities