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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Characterization and chromosomal localization of PTPRO, a novel receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, expressed in hematopoietic stem cells.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) support blood cells throughout life by utilizing their self-renewing and multilineage differentiating capabilities. Hematopoietic growth factors mediate their effects on stem cells by the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins. Regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation is partially mediated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). A possible mechanism by which hematopoietic stem cells maintain their self-renewing capacity and undifferentiated state is by controlling the balanced and opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), receptors for growth factors, and PTPases. We have characterized the expression of PTPases in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-treated murine bone marrow cells, which represent a very primitive population of progenitors enriched for reconstituting stem cells, by using a consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Several PTPases were expressed abundantly in the 5-FU-treated bone marrow stem cells. A novel PTP, termed protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor omicron ( PTPRO), which is related to the homotypically adhering kappa, mu and PCP-2 receptor-type tyrosine phosphatases, was identified and characterized. We have cloned the murine and full-length human PTPRO cDNAs which share 89% homology, indicating that PTPRO is highly conserved between these species. The human PTPRO cDNA clone encodes a polypeptide of 1439 amino acids (aa) and has a calculated molecular mass of approximately 162 kDa. PTPRO consists of an extracellular segment containing a MAM domain, an immunoglobulin (Ig) domain, four fibronectin-type III (FN-III) repeats, a transmembrane segment, and two tandem intracellular PTP domains. The human PTPRO gene was assigned to human chromosome 1p35-pter using Southern blot analyses of genomic DNAs from rodent/human somatic hybrid cell lines containing human chromosome 1 or the p35-pter region of the chromosome. The mouse Ptpro gene was mapped to chromosome 4, closely linked to D4Mit16 and Elp1 (elliptocytosis-1), by using genomic DNAs from a (C57BL/6J x Mus spretus)F1 x Mus spretus backcross. In fetal tissues, PTPRO expression was observed in the brain and lung, whereas lower levels were observed in the kidney. In adult tissues, PTPRO was less restricted and was observed in the lung, heart, skeletal muscle, prostate, testis, and in various areas of the brain, indicating that PTPRO expression is developmentally regulated. Expression of PTPRO was also observed in human CD34+ bone marrow cells and 5-FU-treated murine primitive stem cells. These results suggest a potential role for PTPRO in stem cell adhesion and in mediating homophilic cell-cell interactions in other cell types.[1]


  1. Characterization and chromosomal localization of PTPRO, a novel receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, expressed in hematopoietic stem cells. Avraham, S., London, R., Tulloch, G.A., Ellis, M., Fu, Y., Jiang, S., White, R.A., Painter, C., Steinberger, A.A., Avraham, H. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
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