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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Association of resistance to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and quinolones with changes in major outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharide in Burkholderia cepacia.

Antibiotic treatment options for Burkholderia cepacia infection are limited because of high intrinsic resistance. The problem is complicated by development of cross-resistance between antibiotics of different classes. We isolated antibiotic-resistant mutants by stepwise exposure to chloramphenicol (Chlor) and to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (T/S) for four B. cepacia strains: ATCC13945, Per (clinical isolate), Cas and D4 (environmental isolates). Chlor(r) mutants did not produce chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase. Cross-resistance, defined as greater than four-fold increase in MIC by microtitre dilution method, was consistently seen in both types of mutants. For chloramphenicol-resistant (Chlor[r]) and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole-resistant (Tr/Sr) mutants of B. cepacia ATCC13945 and Cas, no MIC change was seen for piperacillin, ceftazidime, rifampicin, gentamicin, tobramycin, polymyxin B or azithromycin. B. cepacia-Per and -D4 mutants showed cross-resistance to ceftazidime and to piperacillin. Comparison of outer membrane protein ( OMP) profiles of B. cepacia and their mutants by SDS-PAGE revealed Tr/Sr) mutants to be deficient in a major OMP (molecular weight 39-47 kDa). Tr/Sr mutants also expressed additional OMPs not found in wild type strains at 75-77 kDa for B. cepacia-ATCC13945 and -Cas, and 20-21 kDa in B. cepacia-D4 and -Per. No OMP changes occurred in Chlor(r) mutants. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles of each type of mutant showed new high and low molecular weight LPS bands. Cross-resistance seems to be mediated by alterations in porin and LPS for Tr/Sr mutants, but only by LPS in Chlor(r) mutants.[1]


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