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Chemical Compound Review

Dyfonate     ethoxy-ethyl-phenylsulfanyl- sulfanylidene...

Synonyms: Difonate, Fonophos, DYPHONATE, Difonatul, Fonofos, ...
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Disease relevance of Fonofos

  • Although prostate cancer risk was unrelated to fonofos use overall, among applicators with a family history of prostate cancer, we observed a significant dose-response trend for lifetime exposuredays (ptrend = 0.02, RR highest tertile vs. unexposed = 1.77, 95% CI, 1.03-3.05; RRinteraction = 1.28, 95% CI, 1.07-1.54) [1].
  • This study determined the acute and chronic toxicity of the organophosphate insecticide fonofos to standard freshwater aquatic organisms under laboratory conditions [2].
  • The effects of fonofos in other soils and of the low rate of carbofuran applied to four different types of soils on the numbers of fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes were difficult to assess [3].

High impact information on Fonofos

  • The odds ratios for four organophosphate insecticides (terbufos, fonofos, chlorpyrifos, and phorate) were elevated when these chemicals were modeled individually and remained elevated, though attenuated somewhat, when chlorimuron-ethyl was included [4].
  • Phorate and fonofos also inhibited the production of most primary metabolites of CYP3A4 [5].
  • Fonofos was stable when compared to their storage in C18 precolumns [6].
  • This comparison was done to determine if the reported greater sensitivity of cattle to Dyfonate might be explained by a greater sensitivity of the target enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, in cattle to inhibition by Dyfonate's toxic metabolite, Dyfonate-oxon [7].
  • The acute toxicity of fonofos and phosphamidon on three age classes of Artemia salina was evaluated [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Fonofos


Biological context of Fonofos

  • The oral acute LD50 and LD1 of fonofos in Holstein cows were calculated by the Litchfield and Wilcoxon method to be 1.30 and 0.84 mg/kg, respectively, with a 95% confidence range of +/- 0.20 mg/kg [10].
  • Several of the pesticides measured in floor wipe samples, Azinphos methyl, Fonofos, and Simazine, also showed seasonal variations [11].

Associations of Fonofos with other chemical compounds


  1. Fonofos exposure and cancer incidence in the agricultural health study. Mahajan, R., Blair, A., Lynch, C.F., Schroeder, P., Hoppin, J.A., Sandler, D.P., Alavanja, M.C. Environ. Health Perspect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Aquatic hazard assessment of the organophosphate insecticide fonofos. Fairchild, J.F., Little, E.E., Huckins, J.N. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. The effect of fonofos and carbofuran on microbiological population, and persistence of fonofos in four organic soils infested with onion maggot. Bélanger, A., Mathur, S.P., Martel, P. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Pesticides associated with wheeze among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Hoppin, J.A., Umbach, D.M., London, S.J., Lynch, C.F., Alavanja, M.C., Sandler, D.P. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Inhibition and activation of the human liver microsomal and human cytochrome P450 3A4 metabolism of testosterone by deployment-related chemicals. Usmani, K.A., Rose, R.L., Hodgson, E. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Stability of pesticides stored on polymeric solid-phase extraction cartridges. Ferrer, I., Barceló, D. Journal of chromatography. A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparative sensitivity of bovine and rodent acetylcholinesterase to in vitro inhibition by organophosphate insecticides. Cohen, S.D., Williams, R.A., Killinger, J.M., Freudenthal, R.I. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Protective effect induced by atropine, carbamates, and 2-pyridine aldoxime methoiodide Artemia salina larvae exposed to fonofos and phosphamidon. Victoria Barahona, M., S??nchez-Fort??n, S. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Toxicity of aldicarb and fonofos to the early-life-stage of the fathead minnow. Pickering, Q.H., Gilliam, W.T. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Fonofos toxicosis in dairy cows: an accidental poisoning (1977). Kurtz, D.A., Hutchinson, L. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Seasonal pesticide use in a rural community on the US/Mexico border. Freeman, N.C., Shalat, S.L., Black, K., Jimenez, M., Donnelly, K.C., Calvin, A., Ramirez, J. Journal of exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Application of capillary electrophoresis to study the enantioselective transformation of five chiral pesticides in aerobic soil slurries. Jarman, J.L., Jones, W.J., Howell, L.A., Garrison, A.W. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Fungal degradation of organophosphorus insecticides. Bumpus, J.A., Kakar, S.N., Coleman, R.D. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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