The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

METALAXYL     methyl 2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-(2...

Synonyms: Metalaxil, Metanaxin, Metasyl, Metaxanin, Ridomil, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Apron FL


High impact information on Apron FL

  • In NahG and nim1 (for noninducible immunity) Arabidopsis plants, which normally exhibit increased susceptibility to pathogens, the fungicides metalaxyl, fosetyl, and Cu(OH)2 are much less active and fail to control Peronospora parasitica [6].
  • Correlations between pH and ES have previously been reported for other pesticides (metalaxyl, dichlorprop, mecoprop), but the presence or absence of such correlations is not obviously linked to the pathways of degradation [7].
  • When both parents had the same phenotype for metalaxyl sensitivity (both resistant or both sensitive), all F1 progeny had the parental phenotype [8].
  • Genetics of metalaxyl resistance in Phytophthora infestans [8].
  • When an F2 progeny was constructed from resistant F1 isolates in cross 76, the progeny segregated 1:3 (sensitive:resistant), indicating that metalaxyl resistance in Bg8 is conferred by a single dominant gene [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Apron FL


Biological context of Apron FL

  • Cytogenetic effects of Metalaxyl on human and animal chromosomes [1].
  • So, clastogenicity of Metalaxyl may not be evidence for DNA reactivity, but it may indicate alterations in cell homeostasis which are well implicated in the process of carcinogenesis [1].
  • Here, PCR-based methods including amplification from RAPD primers and two systems of automated AFLP analysis have been used to detect DNA-level genetic variation among 14 isolates including metalaxyl-resistant and susceptible isolates, as well as representatives of common pathotypes 1 and 3 and a new pathotype [10].
  • Available laboratory and field studies indicate that metalaxyl is stable to hydrolysis under normal environmental pH values, It is also photolytically stable in water and soil when exposed to natural sunlight [11].
  • Metalaxyl is a systemic fungicide used to control plant diseases caused by Oomycete fungi [11].

Anatomical context of Apron FL

  • Single i.p. injections of 75-300 mg/kg Metalaxyl had no effect on the frequency of micronuclei, detected in murine polychromatic erythrocytes [1].
  • Nuclei isolated from metalaxyl-resistant (Mr) protoplasts of Phytophthora parasitica were transferred into chloroneb-resistant (Cnr) protoplasts of the same species, with an average successful rate of 1x10(-4), using a selective medium containing both metalaxyl and chloroneb [12].
  • The cytotoxic effects and the transforming properties of two fungicides, metalaxyl and zineb, whose mutagenic or carcinogenic activity has not been clarified yet, were analyzed in the in vitro BALB/c 3T3 cell transformation test both in the presence and in the absence of an exogenous metabolizing system [13].

Associations of Apron FL with other chemical compounds

  • Carbendazim and metalaxyl residues were determined by HPLC and GC/MS, respectively, in apple core, flesh and peel at the initial time, 3 and 6 months after storage under controlled atmosphere conditions of 4.5 degrees C, 5% CO(2) and 1% O(2) [14].
  • Determination of combined residues of metalaxyl and 2,6-dimethylaniline metabolites in urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [15].
  • After barrier intercalation, the breakthrough curves (BTC) indicated a dramatic decrease in the amounts of linuron leached in all columns and a significant modification of the leaching kinetics of atrazine and metalaxyl [16].
  • In this study, two commonly used fungicides, metalaxyl (methyl N-(methoxyacetyl)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alaninate) and chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile), were evaluated for their partitioning and persistence in a bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds) putting green under southern California climatic conditions [17].
  • At 1000 micrograms ml-1 benlate, rovral and sumisclex completely prevented Alternaria and Aspergillus rot, whereas cuprosan and ridomil were ineffective against rotting caused by A. niger [18].

Gene context of Apron FL


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Apron FL

  • Definitive pathological diagnosis was made at laparotomy by obtaining a Tru-cut (Allegiance Health Care Inc, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) core biopsy specimen [20].
  • Estimation of the systemic fungicide Ridomil by thin-layer chromatography [21].
  • In the present study, the degradation/ dissipation of metalaxyl and its primary carboxylic acid metabolite (MX-acid) in soil was investigated under laboratory conditions using enantioselective gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) [22].
  • Available data reported that Metalaxyl was non-carcinogenic and gave negative results in a battery of genotoxicity tests [1].
  • Adequate analytical methods of TLC, GLC, HPLC, MS, and other techniques are available for identification and determination of metalaxyl residues and its metabolites [11].


  1. Cytogenetic effects of Metalaxyl on human and animal chromosomes. Hrelia, P., Maffei, F., Fimognari, C., Vigagni, F., Cantelli-Forti, G. Mutat. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Biomarkers of effect in evaluating metalaxyl cocarcinogenesis. Selective induction of murine CYP 3A isoform. Paolini, M., Mesirca, R., Pozzetti, L., Sapone, A., Cantelli-Forti, G. Mutat. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Metalaxyl toxicity, uptake, and distribution in several ornamental plant species. Wilson, P.C., Whitwell, T., Klaine, S.J. J. Environ. Qual. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Stereoselective lipases from Burkholderia sp., cloning and their application to preparation of methyl (R)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)alaninate, a key intermediate for (R)-Metalaxyl. Park, O.J., Lee, S.H. J. Biotechnol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Metalaxyl-induced bradycardia in rats: mediated by alpha-adrenoreceptors. Naidu, K.A., Radhakrishnamurty, R. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Impaired fungicide activity in plants blocked in disease resistance signal transduction. Molina, A., Hunt, M.D., Ryals, J.A. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Influence of pH on the stereoselective degradation of the fungicides epoxiconazole and cyproconazole in soils. Buerge, I.J., Poiger, T., Müller, M.D., Buser, H.R. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Genetics of metalaxyl resistance in Phytophthora infestans. Lee, T.Y., Mizubuti, E., Fry, W.E. Fungal Genet. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Comparative toxicity and biochemical responses of certain pesticides to the mature earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa under laboratory conditions. Mosleh, Y.Y., Ismail, S.M., Ahmed, M.T., Ahmed, Y.M. Environ. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization and genetic distance analysis of isolates of Peronosclerospora sorghi using AFLP fingerprinting. Perumal, R., Isakeit, T., Menz, M., Katile, S., No, E.G., Magill, C.W. Mycol. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Metalaxyl: persistence, degradation, metabolism, and analytical methods. Sukul, P., Spiteller, M. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Occurrence of a parasexual cycle following the transfer of isolated nuclei into protoplasts of Phytophthora parasitica. Gu, Y.H., Ko, W.H. Curr. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. In vitro transforming effect of the fungicides metalaxyl and zineb. Perocco, P., Colacci, A., Bonora, B., Grilli, S. Teratog., Carcinog. Mutagen. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Carbendazim and metalaxyl residues in post-harvest treated apples. Su, Y., Mitchell, S.H., Mac AntSaoir, S. Food additives and contaminants. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Determination of combined residues of metalaxyl and 2,6-dimethylaniline metabolites in urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Headley, J.V., Maxwell, D.B., Swyngedouw, C., Purdy, J.R. Journal of AOAC International. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Modification of clay barriers with a cationic surfactant to improve the retention of pesticides in soils. Rodr??guez-Cruz, M.S., S??nchez-Mart??n, M.J., Andrades, M.S., S??nchez-Camazano, M. J. Hazard. Mater. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Environmental fate of metalaxyl and chlorothalonil applied to a bentgrass putting green under southern California climatic conditions. Wu, L., Liu, G., Yates, M.V., Green, R.L., Pacheco, P., Gan, J., Yates, S.R. Pest Manag. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Studies on fungi associated with tomato fruits and effectiveness of some commercial fungicides against three pathogens. Abdel-Mallek, A.Y., Hemida, S.K., Bagy, M.M. Mycopathologia (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of turfgrass cover and irrigation on soil mobility and dissipation of mefenoxam and propiconazole. Gardner, D.S., Branham, B.E. J. Environ. Qual. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Successful outcome after transplantation of a donor liver with focal nodular hyperplasia. Tan, M., Di Carlo, A., Robinson, P., Tchervenkov, J.I., Barkun, J.S., Metrakos, P. Liver Transpl. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Estimation of the systemic fungicide Ridomil by thin-layer chromatography. Singh, U.S., Tripathi, R.K. J. Chromatogr. (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Environmental behavior of the chiral acetamide pesticide metalaxyl: enantioselective degradation and chiral stability in soil. Buser, H.R., Müller, M.D., Poiger, T., Balmer, M.E. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities