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Chemical Compound Review

Diacesal     2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) carbonyloxybenzoic acid

Synonyms: Diplosal, Disalcid, Saloxium, Disalyl, Nobacid, ...
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Disease relevance of o-Salicylsalicylic acid


Psychiatry related information on o-Salicylsalicylic acid

  • Male and female Artemia salina swim in tandem pairs before copulation and during this period the metachronal rhythms of the individuals are entrained [6].
  • Five indices of disease severity (pain, stiffness, joint swelling, limitation of motion, and disability) were evaluated before and after salsalate therapy, the incidence of side effects was tabulated before and after treatment, and patient compliance with the salsalate regimen was assessed [7].
  • The method employed is nondestructive, provides a rapid indication of the status of groups of individuals, and is based on a time-response analysis of the consumption of the eggs of Artemia salina and the determination of median feeding times or FT50s [8].
  • These findings demonstrate that dietary carotenoids from both D. salina and P. rhodozyma can modulate some of the innate defense mechanisms in rainbow trout [9].

High impact information on o-Salicylsalicylic acid

  • DESIGN--In a cohort of patients taking salsalate for various rheumatic conditions, thyroid function tests were performed with patients on and off the drug [10].
  • The authors have previously reported that a messenger RNA (mRNA) bearing 60% homology to elongation factor 1 gamma in Artemia salina was overexpressed in 7 of 9 pancreatic tumors relative to normal appearing adjacent tissue [11].
  • When the gastroduodenal mucosa was assessed endoscopically 1 hour after the final dose of medication, there was minimal mucosal injury in placebo-treated or salsalate-treated subjects and considerable injury in the stomach and duodenum of aspirin-treated subjects (P less than 0.001, aspirin vs. salsalate or placebo) [12].
  • The effects of a 7.5-day course of orally administered salsalate (3.0 g/day), aspirin (3.9 g/day), or placebo on gastroduodenal mucosal injury, mucosal prostaglandin content, and plasma prostaglandin concentrations in healthy, asymptomatic human volunteers were examined [12].
  • Hyperosmotic shock, induced by raising the NaCl concentration of Dunaliella salina medium from 1.71 to 3.42 M, elicited a rapid decrease of nearly one-third in whole cell volume and in the volume of intracellular organelles [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of o-Salicylsalicylic acid


Biological context of o-Salicylsalicylic acid

  • However, no significant levels of phosphorylation are observed when casein, histones, Artemia salina 40S ribosomal subunits, or other initiation factor fractions are used as substrates although high levels of phosphorylation are obtained with cruder preparations of the repressor [19].
  • The catalytic subunit of cyclic 3':5'-AMP-dependent protein kinase (ATP:protein phosphotransferase, EC inhibits translation in Artemia salina and wheat germ extracts [20].
  • The amino acid sequence shows a strong homology with several domains of Artemia salina EF-1 alpha cytoplasmic factor, as evidenced by diagonal dot matrix analysis [21].
  • mRNA methylation and protein synthesis in extracts from embryos of brine shrimp, Artemia salina [22].
  • Mean bleeding time in patients taking salsalate was less than that in aspirin controls [23].

Anatomical context of o-Salicylsalicylic acid

  • On the mechanism of rapid plasma membrane and chloroplast envelope expansion in Dunaliella salina exposed to hypoosmotic shock [24].
  • Guanylyltransferase from HeLa cells, wheat germ, Artemia salina and yeast also formed the enzyme-GMP complex and, from the stability of the complex, the linkage between the enzyme and GMP was suggested to be a phosphoamide [25].
  • Isolation and characterization of two acidic proteins of 60s ribosomes from Artemia salina cysts [26].
  • The response of D. salina to the enhanced rate of damage entails an accumulation of photodamaged centers (80% of all PSII) and the formation of thylakoid membranes containing a smaller quantity of photosystem I (PSI) centers (about 10% of that in cells grown under low light) [27].
  • Reovirus mRNAs directed the synthesis of fMet dipeptides in a translation initiation system reconstituted from rabbit reticulocyte initiation and elongation factors, Artemia salina 80S ribosomes, yeast fMet-tRNAiMet and Escherichia coli3H-labeled aminoacyl tRNAs [28].

Associations of o-Salicylsalicylic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of o-Salicylsalicylic acid


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of o-Salicylsalicylic acid

  • Comparison of Artemia salina and Escherichia coli ribosome structure by electron microscopy [2].
  • Although the induced anti-P autoantibodies bound exclusively to the carboxyl terminus, these anti-P antibodies differed from spontaneously occurring anti-P autoantibodies in their predominant binding to mouse P0 on immunoblots and their preferential reactivity against A. salina synthetic peptides by ELISA [37].
  • Using pulsed field gel electrophoresis it is shown that the nucleomorph of the cryptomonad Pyrenomonas salina contains three linear chromosomes of 195 kb, 225 kb and 240 kb all of which encode rRNAs [38].
  • Recently, a method was developed in which beta-carotene was harvested from the microalga Dunaliella salina grown in a two-phase bioreactor [39].
  • A 1500 mg dose of salsalate (SSA) was given to five patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis on an interdialytic day and again before dialysis [40].


  1. Salsalate and minimal-change nephrotic syndrome. Vallès, M., Tovar, J.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparison of Artemia salina and Escherichia coli ribosome structure by electron microscopy. Boulik, M., Hellmann, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Messenger RNA guanylyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Large scale purification, subunit functions, and subcellular localization. Itoh, N., Yamada, H., Kaziro, Y., Mizumoto, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Accidental salicylate intoxication in a hemodialysis patient. Kleinman, K.S., Schweitzer, S., Nissenson, A.R. Arch. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Artemia salina as a test organism for measuring superoxide-mediated toxicity. Matthews, R.S. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. The mechanism for co-ordinating metachronal limb movements between joined male and female Artemia salina during precopulatory behaviour. Lent, C.M. J. Exp. Biol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Salsalate for arthritis: a clinical evaluation. McPherson, T.C. Clinical therapeutics. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. The influence of fresh water pollutants and interaction with Asellus aquaticus (L.) on the feeding activity of Gammarus pulex (L.). Blockwell, S.J., Taylor, E.J., Jones, I., Pascoe, D. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Enhancement of innate immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) associated with dietary intake of carotenoids from natural products. Amar, E.C., Kiron, V., Satoh, S., Watanabe, T. Fish Shellfish Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Abnormal thyroid function test results in patients taking salsalate. McConnell, R.J. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of an elongation factor 1 gamma-related sequence in adenocarcinomas of the colon. Chi, K., Jones, D.V., Frazier, M.L. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparison of salsalate and aspirin on mucosal injury and gastroduodenal mucosal prostaglandins. Cryer, B., Goldschmiedt, M., Redfern, J.S., Feldman, M. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Concurrent changes in Dunaliella salina ultrastructure and membrane phospholipid metabolism after hyperosmotic shock. Einspahr, K.J., Maeda, M., Thompson, G.A. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Alkoxypsoralens, novel nonpeptide blockers of Shaker-type K+ channels: synthesis and photoreactivity. Wulff, H., Rauer, H., Düring, T., Hanselmann, C., Ruff, K., Wrisch, A., Grissmer, S., Hänsel, W. J. Med. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. In vivo studies on the incorporation of microinjected acidic proteins of the large ribosomal subunit from Escherichia coli and artermia salina into oocyte ribosomes from Xenopus laevis. Kalthoff, H., Richter, D. Biochemistry (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Neutrophil activation: an alternative to prostaglandin inhibition as the mechanism of action for NSAIDs. Altman, R.D. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Toxicity of some Fusarium section Sporotrichiella strains in relation to mycotoxin production. Visconti, A., Minervini, F., Solfrizzo, M., Bottalico, C., Lucivero, G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. A comparison of the alanine-rich sequences of the L7/L12-ribosomal proteins from rat liver, Artemia salina and Escherichia coli, with the amino-terminal region of the alkali light chain A1 from rabbit myosin. Amons, R., van Agthoven, A., Pluijms, W., Möller, W. FEBS Lett. (1978) [Pubmed]
  19. Specificity of the protein kinase activity associated with the hemin-controlled repressor of rabbit reticulocyte. Kramer, G., Cimadevilla, J.M., Hardesty, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Translational control by protein kinase in Artemia salina and wheat germ. Sierra, J.M., de Haro, C., Datta, A., Ochoa, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of one of two genes coding for yeast elongation factor 1 alpha. Cottrelle, P., Thiele, D., Price, V.L., Memet, S., Micouin, J.Y., Marck, C., Buhler, J.M., Sentenac, A., Fromageot, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. mRNA methylation and protein synthesis in extracts from embryos of brine shrimp, Artemia salina. Muthukrishnan, S., Filipowicz, W., Sierra, J.M., Both, G.W., Shatkin, A.J., Ochoa, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Lack of platelet effect with the aspirin analog, salsalate. Estes, D., Kaplan, K. Arthritis Rheum. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. On the mechanism of rapid plasma membrane and chloroplast envelope expansion in Dunaliella salina exposed to hypoosmotic shock. Maeda, M., Thompson, G.A. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Mechanism of the mRNA guanylyltransferase reaction: isolation of N epsilon-phospholysine and GMP (5' leads to N epsilon) lysine from the guanylyl-enzyme intermediate. Toyama, R., Mizumoto, K., Nakahara, Y., Tatsuno, T., Kaziro, Y. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Isolation and characterization of two acidic proteins of 60s ribosomes from Artemia salina cysts. Möller, W., Slobin, L.I., Amons, R., Richter, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Photosystem II reaction center damage and repair cycle: chloroplast acclimation strategy to irradiance stress. Vasilikiotis, C., Melis, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Two initiation sites detected in the small s1 species of reovirus mRNA by dipeptide synthesis in vitro. Cenatiempo, Y., Twardowski, T., Shoeman, R., Ernst, H., Brot, N., Weissbach, H., Shatkin, A.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Polypeptide chain initiation in eukaryotes: mechanism of formation of initiation complex. Nombela, C., Nombela, N.A., Ochoa, S., Safer, B., Anderson, W.F., Merrick, W.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Solubilization and purification of Artemia salina (Na,K)-activated ATPase and NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of its larger subunit. Morohashi, M., Kawamura, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. A Multicopper Ferroxidase Involved in Iron Binding to Transferrins in Dunaliella salina Plasma Membranes. Paz, Y., Katz, A., Pick, U. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Availability of salicylate from salsalate and aspirin. Dromgoole, S.H., Cassell, S., Furst, D.E., Paulus, H.E. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1983) [Pubmed]
  33. Human elongation factor 1 beta: cDNA and derived amino acid sequence. von der Kammer, H., Klaudiny, J., Zimmer, M., Scheit, K.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Cloning and genetic characterization of a calcium- and phospholipid-binding protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is homologous to translation elongation factor-1 gamma. Kambouris, N.G., Burke, D.J., Creutz, C.E. Yeast (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Intracellular translocation of a 28 kDa GTP-binding protein during osmotic shock-induced cell volume regulation in Dunaliella salina. Memon, A.R., Herrin, D.L., Thompson, G.A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Self-association of the single-KH-domain family members Sam68, GRP33, GLD-1, and Qk1: role of the KH domain. Chen, T., Damaj, B.B., Herrera, C., Lasko, P., Richard, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Anti-P autoantibody production requires P1/P2 as immunogens but is not driven by exogenous self-antigen in MRL mice. Hines, J.J., Weissbach, H., Brot, N., Elkon, K. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  38. A eukaryotic genome of 660 kb: electrophoretic karyotype of nucleomorph and cell nucleus of the cryptomonad alga, Pyrenomonas salina. Eschbach, S., Hofmann, C.J., Maier, U.G., Sitte, P., Hansmann, P. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. Milking of microalgae. Hejazi, M.A., Wijffels, R.H. Trends Biotechnol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. Salsalate kinetics in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. Williams, M.E., Weinblatt, M., Rosa, R.M., Griffin, V.L., Goldlust, M.B., Shang, S.F., Harrison, L.I., Brown, R.S. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1986) [Pubmed]
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