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Chemical Compound Review

simazine     6-chloro-N,N'-diethyl-1,3,5- triazine-2,4...

Synonyms: Aquazine, Batazina, Cekusima, Herbazin, Printrex, ...
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Disease relevance of simazine

  • Although they possess a very low acute toxicity in animals, a mammary tumor response has been consistently observed in Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rats following chronic oral dosing of atrazine and simazine at and above maximum tolerated doses [1].
  • Bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas sp. ADP resulted in an increased initial rate of simazine removal, but this strain scarcely survived [2].
  • Male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with vehicle or 300 or 600 mg/kg body weight (bw) simazine daily orally for 4 wk [3].
  • Algal cell recovery from simazine toxic effect occurred after 2 and 4 days for Anabaena and Protosiphon, respectively, which may be attributed to the difference in algal genotype of the tested organisms [4].
  • Recommended concentrations of paraquat alone and its combination with each of linuron, diuron, atrazine, simazine, and simazine plus diuron exerted little effect on total populations of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in Fox sandy loam under laboratory and simulated field conditions in 66 and 77 days, respectively [5].

High impact information on simazine


Chemical compound and disease context of simazine


Biological context of simazine


Anatomical context of simazine

  • These data indicate that HA affects catecholamine synthesis and release in PC12 cells in a manner that is similar to synthesis of atrazine and simazine [19].
  • Simazine treatment (600 mg/kg) induced an increase in the percentage of CD4(+) cells in spleen and CD8 + in thymus [3].
  • Taken together, data indicate that the immune system was suppressed by oral simazine exposure [3].
  • The 72 h LC50 value for yolk sac larvae was estimated as 4.19 mg/l. Commercial grade simazine did not exert any significant toxicity to the marine bacterium V. fischeri at the concentrations tested [20].
  • Body weight and spleen and thymus weight decreased generally in simazine-treated mice, while the weight of adrenal glands was higher than in the control [3].

Associations of simazine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of simazine

  • Although transgenic and nontransgenic plants metabolized the two herbicides into the same sets of compounds, CYP1A1 plants metabolized atrazine and simazine more rapidly than did control plants [25].
  • Lauric acid omega-hydroxylase (LAOH) was also increased by 1.4-fold by simazine at 200 and 400 mumol/kg [26].
  • There was, however, an inhibition of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production by simazine, metoxuron and mecoprop and of all three cytokines tested by diuron [27].
  • Agents known to enhance TH and DbetaH transcription, phosphorylation or activity (e.g., 8-bromo cAMP, forskolin or dexamethasone) reversed the inhibitory effects of atrazine and simazine on the NE [28].
  • AZ, CZ, and SZ are not estrogen receptor (ER) activating compounds based on yeast transactivation and receptor competition data [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of simazine


  1. The mammary tumor response in triazine-treated female rats: a threshold-mediated interaction with strain and species-specific reproductive senescence. Eldridge, J.C., Wetzel, L.T., Stevens, J.T., Simpkins, J.W. Steroids (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Simazine treatment history determines a significant herbicide degradation potential in soils that is not improved by bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas sp. ADP. Morán, A.C., Müller, A., Manzano, M., González, B. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Immune alterations in mice exposed to the herbicide simazine. Kim, K.R., Son, E.W., Hee-Um, S., Kim, B.O., Rhee, D.K., Pyo, S. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic activity as tools for the evaluation of simazine toxicity to Protosiphon botryoides and Anabaena variabilis. Kobbia, I.A., Battah, M.G., Shabana, E.F., Eladel, H.M. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Response of soil microbiota to selected herbicide treatments. Roslycky, E.B. Can. J. Microbiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Solubility of triazine pesticides in pure and modified subcritical water. Curren, M.S., King, J.W. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Miniaturization of a homogeneous fluorescence immunoassay based on energy transfer using nanotiter plates as high-density sample carriers. Schobel, U., Coille, I., Brecht, A., Steinwand, G.M., Gauglitz, G. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Atrazine and simazine determination in river water samples by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Desiderio, C., Fanali, S. Electrophoresis (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. The clastogenic potential of triazine herbicide combinations found in potable water supplies. Taets, C., Aref, S., Rayburn, A.L. Environ. Health Perspect. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Controlled release of the herbicide simazine from computationally designed molecularly imprinted polymers. Piletska, E.V., Turner, N.W., Turner, A.P., Piletsky, S.A. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Metalaxyl and simazine toxicity to and uptake by Typha latifolia. Wilson, P.C., Whitwell, T., Klaine, S.J. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Assessing the impact of triazine herbicides on organophosphate insecticide toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Lydy, M.J., Linck, S.L. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of soil aging on sorption and bioavailability of simazine. Regitano, J.B., Koskinen, W.C., Sadowsky, M.J. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei analysis in lymphocytes of men exposed to simazine through drinking water. Suárez, S., Rubio, A., Sueiro, R.A., Garrido, J. Mutat. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. A highly sensitive flow-through amperometric immunosensor based on the Peroxidase chip and enzyme-channeling principle. Zeravik, J., Ruzgas, T., Fránek, M. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Genotoxicity studies of three triazine herbicides: in vivo studies using the alkaline single cell gel (SCG) assay. Tennant, A.H., Peng, B., Kligerman, A.D. Mutat. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Cytogenetic studies of three triazine herbicides. II. In vivo micronucleus studies in mouse bone marrow. Kligerman, A.D., Doerr, C.L., Tennant, A.H., Peng, B. Mutat. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Perinatal exposure to the fungicide prochloraz feminizes the male rat offspring. Vinggaard, A.M., Christiansen, S., Laier, P., Poulsen, M.E., Breinholt, V., Jarfelt, K., Jacobsen, H., Dalgaard, M., Nellemann, C., Hass, U. Toxicol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Alteration of catecholamines in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in vitro by the metabolites of chlorotriazine herbicide. Das, P.C., McElroy, W.K., Cooper, R.L. Toxicol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparative toxic effects of formulated simazine on Vibrio fischeri and gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) larvae. Arufe, M.I., Arellano, J., Moreno, M.J., Sarasquete, C. Chemosphere (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. In vitro metabolism of simazine, atrazine and propazine by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes of rat, mouse and guinea pig, and oestrogenic activity of chlorotriazines and their main metabolites. Hanioka, N., Jinno, H., Tanaka-Kagawa, T., Nishimura, T., Ando, M. Xenobiotica (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Soil dissipation of diuron, chlorotoluron, simazine, propyzamide, and diflufenican herbicides after repeated applications in fruit tree orchards. Rouchaud, J., Neus, O., Bulcke, R., Cools, K., Eelen, H., Dekkers, T. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Determination of simazine, terbuthylazine, and their dealkylated chlorotriazine metabolites in soil using sonication microextraction and gas chromatography. Navarro, S., Oliva, J., Barba, A., García, C. Journal of AOAC International. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Hexazinone and simazine dissipation in forestry field nurseries. Calderón, M.J., Ortega, M., Hermosín, M.C., García-Baudín, J., Cornejo, J. Chemosphere (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Transgenic rice plants expressing human CYP1A1 remediate the triazine herbicides atrazine and simazine. Kawahigashi, H., Hirose, S., Ohkawa, H., Ohkawa, Y. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Changes in rat liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by atrazine and simazine treatment. Hanioka, N., Jinno, H., Tanaka-Kagawa, T., Nishimura, T., Ando, M. Xenobiotica (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Effects of selected herbicides on cytokine production in vitro. Hooghe, R.J., Devos, S., Hooghe-Peters, E.L. Life Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Potential mechanisms responsible for chlorotriazine-induced alterations in catecholamines in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Das, P.C., McElroy, W.K., Cooper, R.L. Life Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Role of prolactin in chloro-S-triazine rat mammary tumorigenesis. O'Connor, J.C., Plowchalk, D.R., Van Pelt, C.S., Davis, L.G., Cook, J.C. Drug and chemical toxicology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Immunoassay techniques for detection of the herbicide simazine based on use of oppositely charged water-soluble polyelectrolytes. Yazynina, E.V., Zherdev, A.V., Dzantiev, B.B., Izumrudov, V.A., Gee, S.J., Hammock, B.D. Anal. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Integrated optical surface plasmon resonance immunoprobe for simazine detection. Harris, R.D., Luff, B.J., Wilkinson, J.S., Piehler, J., Brecht, A., Gauglitz, G., Abuknesha, R.A. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Multi-analyte assay for triazines using cross-reactive antibodies and neural networks. Reder, S., Dieterle, F., Jansen, H., Alcock, S., Gauglitz, G. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Analysis of herbicides: demonstration of the utility of enzyme immunoassay verification by HPLC. Price, R.G., Baranowska, I., Griffith, H.M., Abuknesha, R.A., Barchanska, H. Biomarkers (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Analysis of herbicides in olive oil by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. García-Reyes, J.F., Ferrer, C., Thurman, E.M., Fernandez-Alba, A.R., Ferrer, I. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
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