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Chemical Compound Review


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Disease relevance of Ghrelin


Associations of Ghrelin with other chemical compounds

  • Both insulin and ghrelin are now known to enhance hippocampal memory processes; in addition, insulin acts to increase local hippocampal metabolism and regulate synaptic plasticity, while administration of ghrelin has been shown to promote dendritic spine synaptic formation and to increase anxiety [9].
  • Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal decreased with ghrelin [basal: 1.9 +/- 0.1 (ghrelin) vs. 2.3 +/- 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.03; clamp: 3.9 +/- 0.6 (ghrelin) vs. 6.1 +/- 0.5 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.02], whereas endogenous glucose production was similar [10].
  • Ghrelin inhibits insulin release in mice, rats and humans [11].
  • Ghrelin stimulated cortisol and GH secretion, whereas astressin B pretreatment prevented the cortisol, but not the GH, release [12].

Gene context of Ghrelin


  1. Serum ghrelin levels and risk of subsequent adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. de Martel, C., Haggerty, T.D., Corley, D.A., Vogelman, J.H., Orentreich, N., Parsonnet, J. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Circulating preprandial ghrelin to obestatin ratio is increased in human obesity. Guo, Z.F., Zheng, X., Qin, Y.W., Hu, J.Q., Chen, S.P., Zhang, Z. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Ghrelin treatment causes increased food intake and retention of lean body mass in a rat model of cancer cachexia. DeBoer, M.D., Zhu, X.X., Levasseur, P., Meguid, M.M., Suzuki, S., Inui, A., Taylor, J.E., Halem, H.A., Dong, J.Z., Datta, R., Culler, M.D., Marks, D.L. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Ghrelin down-regulates proinflammatory cytokines in sepsis through activation of the vagus nerve. Wu, R., Dong, W., Cui, X., Zhou, M., Simms, H.H., Ravikumar, T.S., Wang, P. Ann. Surg. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Ghrelin prevents cisplatin-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and cachexia. Garcia, J.M., Cata, J.P., Dougherty, P.M., Smith, R.G. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  6. Efficacy of ghrelin as a therapeutic approach for age-related physiological changes. Ariyasu, H., Iwakura, H., Yamada, G., Nakao, K., Kangawa, K., Akamizu, T. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. Exogenous ghrelin attenuates the progression of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in conscious rats. Schwenke, D.O., Tokudome, T., Shirai, M., Hosoda, H., Horio, T., Kishimoto, I., Kangawa, K. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  8. Ghrelin treatment of chronic kidney disease: improvements in lean body mass and cytokine profile. Deboer, M.D., Zhu, X., Levasseur, P.R., Inui, A., Hu, Z., Han, G., Mitch, W.E., Taylor, J.E., Halem, H.A., Dong, J.Z., Datta, R., Culler, M.D., Marks, D.L. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  9. Insulin and ghrelin: peripheral hormones modulating memory and hippocampal function. McNay, E.C. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Acute effects of ghrelin administration on glucose and lipid metabolism. Vestergaard, E.T., Djurhuus, C.B., Gjedsted, J., Nielsen, S., Møller, N., Holst, J.J., Jørgensen, J.O., Schmitz, O. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2008) [Pubmed]
  11. Ghrelin is a physiological regulator of insulin release in pancreatic islets and glucose homeostasis. Dezaki, K., Sone, H., Yada, T. Pharmacol. Ther. (2008) [Pubmed]
  12. Astressin B, a nonselective corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist, prevents the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on luteinizing hormone pulse frequency in the ovariectomized rhesus monkey. Vulliémoz, N.R., Xiao, E., Xia-Zhang, L., Rivier, J., Ferin, M. Endocrinology (2008) [Pubmed]
  13. Ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor expression in mice during aging. Sun, Y., Garcia, J.M., Smith, R.G. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin defends against depressive symptoms of chronic stress. Lutter, M., Sakata, I., Osborne-Lawrence, S., Rovinsky, S.A., Anderson, J.G., Jung, S., Birnbaum, S., Yanagisawa, M., Elmquist, J.K., Nestler, E.J., Zigman, J.M. Nat. Neurosci. (2008) [Pubmed]
  15. Obestatin induction of early-response gene expression in gastrointestinal and adipose tissues and the mediatory role of G protein-coupled receptor, GPR39. Zhang, J.V., Jahr, H., Luo, C.W., Klein, C., Van Kolen, K., Ver Donck, L., De, A., Baart, E., Li, J., Moechars, D., Hsueh, A.J. Mol. Endocrinol. (2008) [Pubmed]
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