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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Dendritic Spines

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Disease relevance of Dendritic Spines

  • A fragile X knockout (fmr1 KO) mouse has been described that has some of the characteristics of patients with fragile X syndrome, including immature dendritic spines and subtle behavioral deficits [1].
  • We find a variety of effects on the density and morphology of dendritic spines by expressing either constitutively active or dominant negative forms of several small GTPases of the Rho family, by blocking the entire pathway with Clostridium difficile toxin B or by blocking Rho with C3 transferase [2].

Psychiatry related information on Dendritic Spines


High impact information on Dendritic Spines

  • Here we report that the same signaling pathway in the postsynaptic CA1 pyramidal neuron also causes LTP of the slow inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) mediated by metabotropic GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B)-Rs) and G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels, both residing in dendritic spines as well as shafts [6].
  • Molecular manipulations of dynamin-like GTPases Drp1 and OPA1 that reduce dendritic mitochondria content lead to loss of synapses and dendritic spines, whereas increasing dendritic mitochondrial content or mitochondrial activity enhances the number and plasticity of spines and synapses [7].
  • Here we describe the use of two-photon microscopy to image transient increases in Ca2+ concentration mediated by NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors in single dendritic spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices [8].
  • Genetic knockout of NR3A in mice results in enhanced NMDA responses and increased dendritic spines in early postnatal cerebrocortical neurons [9].
  • These differential effects of perturbing Rac1 activity indicate that there may be distinct mechanisms for the elaboration of axons, dendrites and dendritic spines [10].

Biological context of Dendritic Spines


Anatomical context of Dendritic Spines


Associations of Dendritic Spines with chemical compounds


Gene context of Dendritic Spines


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dendritic Spines


  1. Increased rates of cerebral glucose metabolism in a mouse model of fragile X mental retardation. Qin, M., Kang, J., Smith, C.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of dendritic spine morphology by the rho family of small GTPases: antagonistic roles of Rac and Rho. Tashiro, A., Minden, A., Yuste, R. Cereb. Cortex (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Role of p21-activated kinase pathway defects in the cognitive deficits of Alzheimer disease. Zhao, L., Ma, Q.L., Calon, F., Harris-White, M.E., Yang, F., Lim, G.P., Morihara, T., Ubeda, O.J., Ambegaokar, S., Hansen, J.E., Weisbart, R.H., Teter, B., Frautschy, S.A., Cole, G.M. Nat. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Altered dendritic spine density in animal models of depression and in response to antidepressant treatment. Norrholm, S.D., Ouimet, C.C. Synapse (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of noradrenergic fibers of the preoptic area in regulating sleep. Kumar, V.M. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Common molecular pathways mediate long-term potentiation of synaptic excitation and slow synaptic inhibition. Huang, C.S., Shi, S.H., Ule, J., Ruggiu, M., Barker, L.A., Darnell, R.B., Jan, Y.N., Jan, L.Y. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The importance of dendritic mitochondria in the morphogenesis and plasticity of spines and synapses. Li, Z., Okamoto, K., Hayashi, Y., Sheng, M. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Synaptic calcium transients in single spines indicate that NMDA receptors are not saturated. Mainen, Z.F., Malinow, R., Svoboda, K. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Increased NMDA current and spine density in mice lacking the NMDA receptor subunit NR3A. Das, S., Sasaki, Y.F., Rothe, T., Premkumar, L.S., Takasu, M., Crandall, J.E., Dikkes, P., Conner, D.A., Rayudu, P.V., Cheung, W., Chen, H.S., Lipton, S.A., Nakanishi, N. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Differential effects of the Rac GTPase on Purkinje cell axons and dendritic trunks and spines. Luo, L., Hensch, T.K., Ackerman, L., Barbel, S., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. SK channels and NMDA receptors form a Ca2+-mediated feedback loop in dendritic spines. Ngo-Anh, T.J., Bloodgood, B.L., Lin, M., Sabatini, B.L., Maylie, J., Adelman, J.P. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Cyclic AMP controls BDNF-induced TrkB phosphorylation and dendritic spine formation in mature hippocampal neurons. Ji, Y., Pang, P.T., Feng, L., Lu, B. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Induction of PGE2 by estradiol mediates developmental masculinization of sex behavior. Amateau, S.K., McCarthy, M.M. Nat. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The polarity protein PAR-3 and TIAM1 cooperate in dendritic spine morphogenesis. Zhang, H., Macara, I.G. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Control of hippocampal dendritic spine morphology through ephrin-A3/EphA4 signaling. Murai, K.K., Nguyen, L.N., Irie, F., Yamaguchi, Y., Pasquale, E.B. Nat. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Glutamate regulates actin-based motility in axonal filopodia. Chang, S., De Camilli, P. Nat. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Fear conditioning drives profilin into amygdala dendritic spines. Lamprecht, R., Farb, C.R., Rodrigues, S.M., LeDoux, J.E. Nat. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Optical quantal analysis reveals a presynaptic component of LTP at hippocampal Schaffer-associational synapses. Emptage, N.J., Reid, C.A., Fine, A., Bliss, T.V. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Experience-dependent pruning of dendritic spines in visual cortex by tissue plasminogen activator. Mataga, N., Mizuguchi, Y., Hensch, T.K. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulation of ion channel distribution at synapses. Froehner, S.C. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Raising the speed limit--fast Ca(2+) handling in dendritic spines. Helmchen, F. Trends Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Adenylate cyclases: critical foci in neuronal signaling. Mons, N., Cooper, D.M. Trends Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. LAR receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases in the development and maintenance of excitatory synapses. Dunah, A.W., Hueske, E., Wyszynski, M., Hoogenraad, C.C., Jaworski, J., Pak, D.T., Simonetta, A., Liu, G., Sheng, M. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Docosahexaenoic acid protects from dendritic pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Calon, F., Lim, G.P., Yang, F., Morihara, T., Teter, B., Ubeda, O., Rostaing, P., Triller, A., Salem, N., Ashe, K.H., Frautschy, S.A., Cole, G.M. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of neuronal morphology and function by the tumor suppressors Tsc1 and Tsc2. Tavazoie, S.F., Alvarez, V.A., Ridenour, D.A., Kwiatkowski, D.J., Sabatini, B.L. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. EphB receptors regulate dendritic spine development via intersectin, Cdc42 and N-WASP. Irie, F., Yamaguchi, Y. Nat. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. The Rho-specific GEF Lfc interacts with neurabin and spinophilin to regulate dendritic spine morphology. Ryan, X.P., Alldritt, J., Svenningsson, P., Allen, P.B., Wu, G.Y., Nairn, A.C., Greengard, P. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Quaternary structure, protein dynamics, and synaptic function of SAP97 controlled by L27 domain interactions. Nakagawa, T., Futai, K., Lashuel, H.A., Lo, I., Okamoto, K., Walz, T., Hayashi, Y., Sheng, M. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. NMDA receptors amplify calcium influx into dendritic spines during associative pre- and postsynaptic activation. Schiller, J., Schiller, Y., Clapham, D.E. Nat. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Columnar organization of dendrites and axons of single and synaptically coupled excitatory spiny neurons in layer 4 of the rat barrel cortex. Lübke, J., Egger, V., Sakmann, B., Feldmeyer, D. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Gonadal steroids regulate dendritic spine density in hippocampal pyramidal cells in adulthood. Gould, E., Woolley, C.S., Frankfurt, M., McEwen, B.S. J. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Molecular cloning and characterization of phocein, a protein found from the Golgi complex to dendritic spines. Baillat, G., Moqrich, A., Castets, F., Baude, A., Bailly, Y., Benmerah, A., Monneron, A. Mol. Biol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Spine loss and other dendritic abnormalities in epilepsy. Swann, J.W., Al-Noori, S., Jiang, M., Lee, C.L. Hippocampus. (2000) [Pubmed]
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