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Chemical Compound Review

Grgesp     (2S)-1-[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[2- [[(2S)-2-(2...

Synonyms: AC1LAPYG, SureCN7935083, Gly-arg-gly-glu-ser-pro, H-Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro-OH
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Disease relevance of Grgesp


High impact information on Grgesp

  • Furthermore, GRGDTP, but not GRGESP, prevented strain-induced expression of a PDGF-A chain promoter 890 bp-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase construct that was transiently transfected into vascular smooth muscle cells [2].
  • A detailed analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in N1 and N7 cell adhesion to ECM substrata was performed by using antibodies raised against the FN receptor and synthetic peptides variously competing with the FN or VN binding to integrin receptor (GRGDSP and GRGESP) [3].
  • Keratinocyte attachment to fibronectin (FN) substrata was inhibited by the peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro-Cys, but not by the variant peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro [4].
  • Adhesion was not inhibited by control immunoglobulin G, by antibody against the integrin receptor alphaVbeta3, by the peptide GRGESP, and by SAA-derived peptide that includes incomplete RGD motif [5].
  • An inactive structural analogue, GRGESP, did not alter shear stress-induced vasodilation [6].

Biological context of Grgesp


Anatomical context of Grgesp

  • We found that the peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP) inhibited spreading of human fibroblasts inside collagen gels and markedly decreased gel contraction, but this peptide had no effect on cell spreading on collagen-coated surfaces [10].
  • We have investigated the possible involvement of integrin-extracellular matrix interactions in this process using primary cultures of rat skeletal muscle subject to hypo- or hyper-osmotic exposure with integrin binding peptide GRGDTP to disrupt integrin actions and the inactive analogue GRGESP as control [11].
  • Bovine endothelial cells (ECs) adhered to and spread well on a surface coated with RGD ALB, whereas few ECs adhered on surfaces coated with GRGESP-albumin conjugate (GRGESP peptide with little cell attachment activity; false control) and albumin [12].

Associations of Grgesp with other chemical compounds

  • When an octyl glucoside extract of surface-radioiodinated platelets was applied to an affinity matrix of KYGRGDS-coupled Sepharose 4B, a 160-kDa-labeled protein (P160) and GPIIb-IIIa bound and were specifically eluted by soluble GRGDSP peptide, but not by the variant GRGESP peptide [13].
  • Gly-arg-gly-asp-ser, a peptide with a cell binding sequence of fibronectin, did not consistently inhibit adhesion (69% adhesion at 0.1 mg/ml, 83% adhesion at 1 mg/ml) or substantially differ from gly-arg-gly-glu-ser-pro (59% adhesion at 0.1 mg/ml, 90% adhesion at 1 mg/ml) [14].

Gene context of Grgesp

  • Adhesive interactions to OPN, laminin, and fibronectin were specific and were blocked by GRGDS (but not control GRGESP) peptides [15].
  • GRGESP did not inhibit the activity of native vitronectin, but, unexpectedly, partially inhibited the activity of both heated and autoclaved vitronectins [16].
  • Peptide specificity was established by the failure of Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro or acetylated L10 to elute GPIIb-IIIa from the immobilized peptides [17].
  • When octylglucoside lysates of lactoperoxidase iodinated cells were applied to 80-kDa-Sepharose columns, a polypeptide complex of 152/125 kDa was eluted with the synthetic peptide GRGDSPC, but not with GRGESP [18].
  • The chemotactic response to TSP-1 (10 micrograms/mL) was abolished by the GRGDSP peptide but unaffected by the control GRGESP peptide, whereas neither peptide inhibited DNA synthesis stimulated by TSP-1 [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Grgesp


  1. Inhibition of experimental metastasis of murine fibrosarcoma cells by oligopeptide analogues to the fibronectin cell-binding site. Bretti, S., Neri, P., Lozzi, L., Rustici, M., Comoglio, P., Giancotti, F., Tarone, G. Int. J. Cancer (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Mechanical strain of rat vascular smooth muscle cells is sensed by specific extracellular matrix/integrin interactions. Wilson, E., Sudhir, K., Ives, H.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Integrin-mediated neurite outgrowth in neuroblastoma cells depends on the activation of potassium channels. Arcangeli, A., Becchetti, A., Mannini, A., Mugnai, G., De Filippi, P., Tarone, G., Del Bene, M.R., Barletta, E., Wanke, E., Olivotto, M. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Fibronectin receptors of human keratinocytes and their expression during cell culture. Toda, K., Tuan, T.L., Brown, P.J., Grinnell, F. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Adhesion of human platelets to serum amyloid A. Urieli-Shoval, S., Shubinsky, G., Linke, R.P., Fridkin, M., Tabi, I., Matzner, Y. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Integrin signaling transduces shear stress--dependent vasodilation of coronary arterioles. Muller, J.M., Chilian, W.M., Davis, M.J. Circ. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. RGD peptides released from beta ig-h3, a TGF-beta-induced cell-adhesive molecule, mediate apoptosis. Kim, J.E., Kim, S.J., Jeong, H.W., Lee, B.H., Choi, J.Y., Park, R.W., Park, J.Y., Kim, I.S. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of the cellular attachment domain of fibronectin in the phagocytosis of beads by human gingival fibroblasts in vitro. McKeown, M., Knowles, G., McCulloch, C.A. Cell Tissue Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Generation of basidiomycetous hyphal cell-aggregates by addition of the Arg-Gly-Asp motif-containing fragment of high-molecular-weight cell-adhesion protein MFBA derived from the basidiomycete Lentinus edodes. Yasuda, T., Ishihara, H., Amano, H., Shishido, K. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. The collagen recognition sequence for fibroblasts depends on collagen topography. Grinnell, F., Nakagawa, S., Ho, C.H. Exp. Cell Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Involvement of integrins and the cytoskeleton in modulation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthesis by changes in cell volume. Low, S.Y., Rennie, M.J., Taylor, P.M. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Preparation of an RGD ALB conjugate. In vitro analysis of cellular responses. Takatsuka, M., Kishida, A., Matsuda, T. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992) (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation and characterization of a platelet membrane protein related to the vitronectin receptor. Lam, S.C., Plow, E.F., D'Souza, S.E., Cheresh, D.A., Frelinger, A.L., Ginsberg, M.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of tumor cell adhesion to lymph nodes by laminin-related peptide and neuraminidase. Islam, S.M., Whalen, G.F., Sharif, S.F. Surgery (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Adhesion of metastatic, ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells to osteopontin, fibronectin, and laminin. Chambers, A.F., Hota, C., Prince, C.W. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Heat and autoclave resistance of cell-spreading activity of vitronectin. Miyazaki, K., Hamano, T., Hayashi, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Evidence that arginyl-glycyl-aspartate peptides and fibrinogen gamma chain peptides share a common binding site on platelets. Lam, S.C., Plow, E.F., Smith, M.A., Andrieux, A., Ryckwaert, J.J., Marguerie, G., Ginsberg, M.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Fibronectin receptors of mononuclear phagocytes: binding characteristics and biochemical isolation. Garcia-Pardo, A., Ferreira, O.C., Valinsky, J., Bianco, C. Exp. Cell Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Thrombospondin-1 is a potent mitogen and chemoattractant for human vascular smooth muscle cells. Patel, M.K., Lymn, J.S., Clunn, G.F., Hughes, A.D. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. An Arg-Gly-Asp peptide stimulates constriction in rat afferent arteriole. Yip, K.P., Marsh, D.J. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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