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Gene Review

ALB  -  albumin

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of ALB

  • ALB rats were given hyperoncotic bovine serum albumin (0.01 gm/gm body weight) intravenously 2 hours before sacrifice [1].
  • We used immunoassays and Western blot analysis to analyze anti-BSA antibodies in the serum of 142 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 79 healthy children, and 300 adult blood donors [2].
  • However, many patients with autoimmune disease and subjects at increased risk for IDDM had anti-BSA antibodies (frequency, 10 to 31 percent) [3].
  • Fusion of hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells with ghosts prepared by hemolysis of erythrocytes in the presence of cytochrome C is much more efficient than fusion with ghosts prepared in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as in previous investigations [4].
  • The increase in cellularity began with the first stages of immune clearance of BSA, with a peak cellularity occuring at the time of onset of proteinuria [5].

Psychiatry related information on ALB

  • In time response analysis, blue-colored complex was developed after 30 min of incubation in both cases (EDC and BSA); therefore, it followed the same kinetic pattern of color development as that of BSA [6].
  • Competitive adsorption caused displacement of bound BSA monomer by the more strongly binding BSA dimer, illustrating that even apparently single-protein systems may display multicomponent competitive behavior [7].
  • For validation, statistical comparisons of the line equations generated by BSA dilution curves and anti-BSA Id dilution curves were performed [8].
  • In this paper, we report for the first time studies on the binding of daphnetin to bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological conditions with BSA concentration of 1.5 x 10(-6) mol l(-1) and drug concentration in the range of 6.7 x 10(-6) to 2.0 x 10(-5) mol l(-1) [9].
  • On day 14 intestinal myoelectric and motor activity were measured in fasted animals before and after intraluminal administration of either 10 mg egg albumin in 0.5 ml saline, 10 mg bovine serum albumin (BSA) in 0.5 ml saline, or placebo (P) challenge with 0.5 ml saline [10].

High impact information on ALB

  • Anti-BSA antibodies may reflect a general defect in the process of immunologic tolerance associated with a predisposition to autoimmunity rather than immunity specific to beta cells [3].
  • The absence of cellular immunity to BSA and ABBOS in IDDM does not support a role for this antigen in the pathogenesis of the disorder [3].
  • We report here the selective immunocytochemical visualization of the putative transmitters glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) by the use of antibodies raised against the amino acids coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) [11].
  • Immersion of juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in a solution containing either urea or sodium chloride at 1650 milliosmoles and 2 percent of bovine serum albumin (BSA) resulted in an uptake of BSA into the blood of the fish after a 3-minute exposure [12].
  • Similar blood levels of BSA were also obtained by placing the fish in 1650 millosmoles of sodium chloride for about 2 minutes, and then immersing them in 2 percent BSA solution for 3 minutes [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of ALB

  • After intracisternal inoculation of Escherichia coli (0111:B4) lipopolysaccharide in rats to elicit a reversible meningitis and BBB injury, we utilized in situ tracer perfusion and immunolabeling procedures to identify by transmission electron microscopy the precise topography and microvascular exit pathway(s) of bovine serum albumin (BSA) [13].
  • The stimulatory activity did not derive from contamination of the protein with Escherichia coli LPS; when compared directly with LPS, the response to BSA was more rapid, had a higher amplitude, and was not inhibitable by polymyxin B [14].
  • 3. F12 media containing the purified BSA plus selenite and the sodium salts of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids supported growth of the melanoma cells to the same extent as did the media containing unpurified BSA, indicating that the sialoglycoprotein has no role in sustaining the growth of the cells [15].
  • The lysine residue at position 58 of toxin II, essential for toxicity, appears to be immunogenic when immunization is with peptide 50-59 bound to BSA and not with the native toxin [16].
  • In all 4 monkeys with the moderate antibody response glomerulonephritis developed, characterized by increased glomerular cellularity, electron-dense deposits in the glomerular capillary basal lamina, and deposits of IgG, IgM, C3, C4, and BSA [17].

Biological context of ALB


Anatomical context of ALB

  • However, medium with BSA alone had fewer blastocysts than any other culture system (P<0.05) [23].
  • Presumptive zygotes were cultured in 1 of 3 culture media: 1) BSAITS - TCM 199 supplemented with 10 mg/ml BSA and ITS (5 mug/ml insulin, 5 mug/ml transferrin, and 5 ng/ml sodium selenite); 2) BECM - bovine embryo culture medium; and 3) BECM supplemented with ITS [24].
  • In Experiment 1, ovarian cortical pieces from late-gestation bovine fetuses were cultured with 2, 5, 20, or 60% oxygen in Waymouth's medium plus ITS+ (insulin, transferrin, selenium plus linoleic acid and BSA) [25].
  • Bovine endothelial cells (ECs) adhered to and spread well on a surface coated with RGD ALB, whereas few ECs adhered on surfaces coated with GRGESP-albumin conjugate (GRGESP peptide with little cell attachment activity; false control) and albumin [21].
  • Similarly, phagocytic function of hemoglobin treated Kupffer cells was not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from that of ALB treated cells [26].

Associations of ALB with chemical compounds

  • For Method B it was performed in mBO medium supplemented with 10 mg globulin-free BSA/ml and 10 mug heparin/ml [24].
  • For Method A, in vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed in Fert-TALP supplemented with 6 mg/ml BSA, 5.0 mug/ml heparin, 20 muM D-penicillamine, 10 muM hypotaurine and 1 muM epinephrine [24].
  • To study the influence of biological thiols on renovascular NO effects, experiments were carried out with Krebs-Henseleit (KH) perfusate solutions alone, and in combination with bovine serum albumin (KH-ALB) [20].
  • RGD ALB was prepared via a coupling reaction of albumin with pentapeptide (GRGDS; Gly-RGD-Ser) by water soluble carbodiimide [21].
  • Decreases were found in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and chloride (CI) [27].

Other interactions of ALB


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ALB

  • In 6 Chinese yak (Bos. grunniens) populations including 177 yaks, 34 blood protein loci were studied by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis, four of these loci (AKP, ALB, LDH-1, TF) were found to be polymorphic [29].
  • Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-anti-BSA immune complexes made in 40 times antigen excess were administered following intravenous injection of PEI [30].
  • Immunofluorescence studies revealed concurrent deposits of IgG, BSA, C3, and the MAC along glomerular capillary walls, although the MAC manifested a more restricted distribution than that observed for immune complexes [31].
  • By combination of isoelectric focusing and immunoelectrophoresis of fresh bovine plasma it is shown that 10% of the albumin in plasma has isoionic points equal to the intramolecular SS-interchanged isomers of bovine serum albumin (BSA) [32].
  • A membrane-associated M approximately 250,000 daltons hepatic receptor for acetyl-LDL and Mal-BSA was 1450-fold purified from total membrane by Triton X-114 solubilization, chromatography on polyethylenimine cellulose and gel filtration [33].


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  2. A bovine albumin peptide as a possible trigger of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Karjalainen, J., Martin, J.M., Knip, M., Ilonen, J., Robinson, B.H., Savilahti, E., Akerblom, H.K., Dosch, H.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Lack of immune responsiveness to bovine serum albumin in insulin-dependent diabetes. Atkinson, M.A., Bowman, M.A., Kao, K.J., Campbell, L., Dush, P.J., Shah, S.C., Simell, O., Maclaren, N.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. A quantitative study of ultramicroinjection of macromolecules into animal cells. Wasserman, M., Zakal, N., Loyter, A., Kulka, R.G. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. The role of monocytes in serum sickness nephritis. Hunsicker, L.G., Shearer, T.P., Plattner, S.B., Weisenburger, D. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide interference with Lowry method. Kumar, R., Shukla, A.K., Bagga, E., Kumari, S., Bajpai, R.P., Bharadwaj, L.M. Anal. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Competitive adsorption of alpha-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin to a sulfopropyl ion-exchange membrane. Weinbrenner, W.F., Etzel, M.R. Journal of chromatography. A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. A flow microsphere inhibition immunoassay (FMII) for detecting paratope binding anti-idiotypic antibodies. Brown, J.E., Ainsworth, A.J. Immunol. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Spectrofluorimetric study of the binding of daphnetin to bovine serum albumin. Liu, J., Tian, J., He, W., Xie, J., Hu, Z., Chen, X. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Motility effects of intestinal anaphylaxis in the rat. Scott, R.B., Diamant, S.C., Gall, D.G. Am. J. Physiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. First visualization of glutamate and GABA in neurones by immunocytochemistry. Storm-Mathisen, J., Leknes, A.K., Bore, A.T., Vaaland, J.L., Edminson, P., Haug, F.M., Ottersen, O.P. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Uptake of bovine serum albumin by rainbow trout from hypersmotic solutions: a model for vaccinating fish. Amend, D.F., Fender, D.C. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Ultrastructural localization of albumin transport across the cerebral microvasculature during experimental meningitis in the rat. Quagliarello, V.J., Ma, A., Stukenbrok, H., Palade, G.E. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Stimulation of interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 secretion from peritoneal macrophages by polymers of albumin. Shacter, E., Arzadon, G.K., Williams, J.A. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Chemical and biological properties of B16 murine melanoma cells grown in defined medium containing bovine serum albumin. Banks, J.R., Bhavanadan, V.P., Davidson, E.A. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Specificity and neutralizing capacity of antibodies elicited by a synthetic peptide of scorpion toxin. Bahraoui, E.M., Granier, C., Van Rietschoten, J., Rochat, H., el Ayeb, M. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Increased atherosclerosis and glomerulonephritis in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) given injections of BSA over an extended period of time. Stills, H.F., Bullock, B.C., Clarkson, T.B. Am. J. Pathol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential binding of IgG and IgA antibodies to antigenic determinants of bovine serum albumin. Hilger, C., Grigioni, F., De Beaufort, C., Michel, G., Freilinger, J., Hentges, F. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Rapid confirmation and revision of the primary structure of bovine serum albumin by ESIMS and Frit-FAB LC/MS. Hirayama, K., Akashi, S., Furuya, M., Fukuhara, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Nitric oxide dose-response study in the isolated perfused rat kidney after inhibition of endothelium-derived relaxing factor synthesis: the role of serum albumin. Kaufmann, M.A., Castelli, I., Pargger, H., Drop, L.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Preparation of an RGD ALB conjugate. In vitro analysis of cellular responses. Takatsuka, M., Kishida, A., Matsuda, T. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992) (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Linkage of bovine erythrocyte antigen loci B, C, L, S, Z, R' and T' and the serum protein loci post-transferrin 2 (PTF 2), vitamin D binding protein (GC) and albumin (ALB) to DNA microsatellite markers. Kappes, S.M., Bishop, M.D., Keele, J.W., Penedo, M.C., Hines, H.C., Grosz, M.D., Hawkins, G.A., Stone, R.T., Sunden, S.L., Beattie, C.W. Anim. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. A serum-free, cell-free culture system for development of bovine one-cell embryos up to blastocyst stage with improved viability. Shamsuddin, M., Larsson, B., Gustafsson, H., Rodriguez-Martinez, H. Theriogenology (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of sperm treatments on the in vitro development of bovine oocytes in semidefined and defined media. Jaakma, U., Zhang, B.R., Larsson, B., Niwa, K., Rodriguez-Martinez, H. Theriogenology (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of oxygen tension and supplements to the culture medium on activation and development of bovine follicles in vitro. Gigli, I., Byrd, D.D., Fortune, J.E. Theriogenology (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Hepatic reticuloendothelial function following resuscitation with hemoglobin solutions. Kim, H.W., Clancy, T., Chen, F., Greenburg, A.G. Biomaterials, artificial cells, and immobilization biotechnology : official journal of the International Society for Artificial Cells and Immobilization Biotechnology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Probable toxicosis in cattle in Israel caused by the oak Quercus calliprinos. Yeruham, I., Avidar, Y., Perl, S., Yakobson, B., Shlosberg, A., Hanji, V., Bogin, E. Veterinary and human toxicology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparative gene frequencies between the Canchim breed of Brazil beef cattle and their foundation breeds. Panepucci, L., Vicente, V. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Genetic diversity and divergence in Chinese yak (Bos grunniens) populations inferred from blood protein electrophoresis. Tu, Z.C., Zhang, Y.P., Qiu, H. Biochem. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Enhancement of glomerular immune complex deposition by a circulating polycation. Barnes, J.L., Venkatachalam, M.A. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Localization of the membrane attack complex (MAC) in experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis. Koffler, D., Biesecker, G., Noble, B., Andres, G.A., Martinez-Hernandez, A. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Spontaneous in vivo isomerization of bovine serum albumin as a determinant of its normal catabolism. Wallevik, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  33. Binding of acetylated low density lipoprotein and maleylated bovine serum albumin to the rat liver: one or two receptors? Dresel, H.A., Friedrich, E., Via, D.P., Sinn, H., Ziegler, R., Schettler, G. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
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