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Gene Review

Grm6  -  glutamate receptor, metabotropic 6

Mus musculus

Synonyms: BC021919, Gm3, Gprc1f, Metabotropic glutamate receptor 6, Mglur6, ...
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Psychiatry related information on Grm6


High impact information on Grm6

  • Taking advantage of the restricted expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6 (mGluR6) in retinal ON bipolar cells, we generated knockout mice lacking mGluR6 expression [2].
  • The results demonstrate that mGluR6 is essential in synaptic transmission to the ON bipolar cell and that the OFF response provides an important means for transmitting visual information [2].
  • The combination of several different morphological analyses indicates that ON bipolar cells, as well as several distinct amacrine cells, in mGluR6 knock-out mice are normally distributed and correctly extend their terminals to defined retinal laminae [3].
  • The mGluR6 5' upstream transgene sequence directs a cell-specific and developmentally regulated expression in retinal rod and ON-type cone bipolar cells [4].
  • We generated transgenic mice, using 9.5 kilobase pairs of the 5' upstream sequence from the mouse metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6 (mGluR6) gene fused to the beta-galactosidase (lacZ) reporter gene, and investigated the promoter function of the cell-specific and developmentally regulated expression of mGluR6 [4].

Biological context of Grm6


Anatomical context of Grm6

  • Recording light evoked field potentials from the superior colliculus of mGluR6-deficient mice at scotopic and mesopic backgrounds, we found a characteristic ON response that differs from the ON response of wild-type mice [8].
  • Quantitative analysis of the hybridization signal obtained from the autoradiographic films revealed decreased expression levels of the mGluR6 mRNA at early stages of photoreceptor degeneration (P17) [9].
  • Paradoxically, we find ON responses in retinal ganglion cells of mGluR6-null mice, but they occur at long latency [10].
  • In mGluR6-null mice, long-latency ON responses are observed in the visual cortex, indicating that they can be conducted reliably to higher visual areas [10].

Other interactions of Grm6

  • This receptor is most related to mGluR4, mGluR7, and mGluR6 (74%, 74%, and 70% identical amino acid residues, respectively) [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Grm6

  • Ablation of mGluR6 in the ON-bipolar cells by gene targeting results in a loss of ON responses but unchanged OFF responses in visual transmission [1].
  • The expression of the gene encoding mGluR6 was studied by in situ hybridization in the retina, using an [(35)S]dATP-labeled oligonucleotide probe [9].


  1. Impairment of pupillary responses and optokinetic nystagmus in the mGluR6-deficient mouse. Iwakabe, H., Katsuura, G., Ishibashi, C., Nakanishi, S. Neuropharmacology (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Specific deficit of the ON response in visual transmission by targeted disruption of the mGluR6 gene. Masu, M., Iwakabe, H., Tagawa, Y., Miyoshi, T., Yamashita, M., Fukuda, Y., Sasaki, H., Hiroi, K., Nakamura, Y., Shigemoto, R. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Immunohistological studies of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6-deficient mice show no abnormality of retinal cell organization and ganglion cell maturation. Tagawa, Y., Sawai, H., Ueda, Y., Tauchi, M., Nakanishi, S. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The mGluR6 5' upstream transgene sequence directs a cell-specific and developmentally regulated expression in retinal rod and ON-type cone bipolar cells. Ueda, Y., Iwakabe, H., Masu, M., Suzuki, M., Nakanishi, S. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Recovery of rod-mediated a-wave during light-adaptation in mGluR6-deficient mice. Ueda, Y., Tammitsu, N., Imai, H., Honda, Y., Shichida, Y. Vision Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. CREB-induced transcriptional activation depends on mGluR6 in rod bipolar cells. Yoshida, K., Imaki, J., Okamoto, Y., Iwakabe, H., Fujisawa, H., Matsuda, A., Nakanisi, S., Matsuda, H., Hagiwara, M. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Localization of the human mGluR4 gene within an epilepsy susceptibility locus(1). Wong, C.G., Scherer, S.W., Snead, O.C., Hampson, D.R. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. A late ON response remains in visual response of the mGluR6-deficient mouse. Sugihara, H., Inoue, T., Nakanishi, S., Fukuda, Y. Neurosci. Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetically induced retinal degeneration leads to changes in metabotropic glutamate receptor expression. Armata, I.A., Giompres, P., Smith, A., Stasi, K., Kouvelas, E.D., Mitsacos, A. Neurosci. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Intrinsic ON responses of the retinal OFF pathway are suppressed by the ON pathway. Renter??a, R.C., Tian, N., Cang, J., Nakanishi, S., Stryker, M.P., Copenhagen, D.R. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. A novel metabotropic glutamate receptor expressed in the retina and olfactory bulb. Duvoisin, R.M., Zhang, C., Ramonell, K. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
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