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Gene Review

ol  -  oligodactyly

Mus musculus

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Disease relevance of ol

  • The limb defects, oligodactyly and syndactyly, have been traced to improper differentiation of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and shortening of the anteroposterior limb axis [1].
  • Exposure to 400 mg/kg hydroxyurea did not affect the progeny, whereas exposure to 500 or 600 mg/kg resulted in dose-dependent increases in fetal resorptions and malformations, including curly tails, abnormal limbs (oligodactyly, hemimelia, and amelia), and short ribs [2].
  • At 2 mg/kg/day, the incidence of cleft palate, renoureteral agenesis or hypoplasia, and poly- or oligodactyly was significantly increased, whereas fetal weight was reduced at 0.5 mg/kg/day [3].
  • Malformations, such as micrognathia, hydrocephalus, short tail, oligodactyly, syndactyly, cleft lip, micromelia, and heart defects occurred, but no skeletal malformations were noted [4].

High impact information on ol


Chemical compound and disease context of ol


Anatomical context of ol


Associations of ol with chemical compounds

  • Pretreatment with OTC decreased the frequency and severity of oligodactyly induced by 5-FU, although the differences were not significant statistically [15].
  • Litters of pregnant mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP) exhibit malformations of the limbs ranging from oligodactyly to amelia [16].

Other interactions of ol


  1. Formin isoforms are differentially expressed in the mouse embryo and are required for normal expression of fgf-4 and shh in the limb bud. Chan, D.C., Wynshaw-Boris, A., Leder, P. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding activity is induced by hydroxyurea in organogenesis stage mouse embryos. Yan, J., Hales, B.F. Toxicol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Maternal and developmental toxicity of low doses of cytosine arabinoside in mice. Ortega, A., Puig, M., Domingo, J.L. Teratology (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Prenatal effects of Ochratoxin A in hamsters. Hood, R.D., Naughton, M.J., Hayes, A.W. Teratology (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Monodactylous limbs and abnormal genitalia are associated with hemizygosity for the human 2q31 region that includes the HOXD cluster. Del Campo, M., Jones, M.C., Veraksa, A.N., Curry, C.J., Jones, K.L., Mascarello, J.T., Ali-Kahn-Catts, Z., Drumheller, T., McGinnis, W. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Analysis of Msx1; Msx2 double mutants reveals multiple roles for Msx genes in limb development. Lallemand, Y., Nicola, M.A., Ramos, C., Bach, A., Cloment, C.S., Robert, B. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Paired-related homeobox genes cooperate in handplate and hindlimb zeugopod morphogenesis. Lu, M.F., Cheng, H.T., Lacy, A.R., Kern, M.J., Argao, E.A., Potter, S.S., Olson, E.N., Martin, J.F. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Reciprocal mouse and human limb phenotypes caused by gain- and loss-of-function mutations affecting Lmbr1. Clark, R.M., Marker, P.C., Roessler, E., Dutra, A., Schimenti, J.C., Muenke, M., Kingsley, D.M. Genetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Neonatal mouse hip joint and hindlimb anomalies induced by prenatal exposure to Ara-C. Chiba, K., Ishikawa, H., Rahman, M.E., Endo, A. Reprod. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of phorone and/or buthionine sulfoximine on teratogenicity of 5-fluorouracil in mice. Naya, M., Mataki, Y., Takahira, H., Deguchi, T., Yasuda, M. Teratology (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Mouse placenta: hemodynamics in the main maternal vessel and histopathologic changes induced by 2-methoxyethanol and 2-methoxyacetic acid following maternal dosing. Khera, K.S. Teratology (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparative developmental toxicity study of indium in rats and mice. Nakajima, M., Takahashi, H., Sasaki, M., Kobayashi, Y., Ohno, Y., Usami, M. Teratog., Carcinog. Mutagen. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Dose- and stage-related sex difference in the incidence of cytosine arabinoside induced digit anomalies in the mouse fetus. Goto, T., Endo, A. Teratology (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Carpal and tarsal bone anomalies in mice induced by maternal treatment of Ara-C. Rahman, M.E., Ishikawa, H., Watanabe, Y., Endo, A. Reprod. Toxicol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate, a cysteine pro-drug, on teratogenicity of 5-fluorouracil in mice. Naya, M., Noguchi, M., Mataki, Y., Deguchi, T., Yasuda, M. Hiroshima J. Med. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Cell cycle alterations and cell death in cyclophosphamide teratogenesis. Chernoff, N., Rogers, J.M., Alles, A.J., Zucker, R.M., Elstein, K.H., Massaro, E.J., Sulik, K.K. Teratog., Carcinog. Mutagen. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Teratogenic effects of retinoic acid are modulated in mice lacking expression of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha. Abbott, B.D., Best, D.S., Narotsky, M.G. Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Reduced birth defects caused by maternal immune stimulation in methylnitrosourea-exposed mice: association with placental improvement. Prater, M.R., Zimmerman, K.L., Ward, D.L., Holladay, S.D. Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology. (2004) [Pubmed]
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