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Gene Review

Pld2  -  phospholipase D2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Choline phosphatase 2, PLD 2, PLD1C, Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D2, Phospholipase D2, ...
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Disease relevance of Pld2


High impact information on Pld2


Biological context of Pld2

  • This is much larger than the closely related mouse PLD2 (mPLD2) gene (17 kb) and indicates that a rapid 20-fold extension/contraction of the set of introns for one of the genes has occurred [5].
  • Given that the two isoforms undertake unique molecular functions in cultured cells, our findings suggest that in vivo PLD1 and PLD2 may modulate neuronal plasticity via different pathways and cell types [6].
  • Mammalian PLD activity derives from a family of membrane-associated enzymes that are activated by a wide variety of signal transduction events. cDNA species encoding human, mouse and rat PLD1 and PLD2 have recently been reported [7].
  • Transient incorporation of PKC with mPLD2 and the phosphorylation of mPLD2 by a and b forms of PKC by UVC irradiation were observed [8].

Anatomical context of Pld2

  • The L1-stimulated neurite outgrowth was inhibited by primary alcohols and by overexpression of lipase-deficient PLD2 [3].
  • Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that the PLDs are expressed by different cell types in the mouse brain: PLD1 by neurons, and PLD2 by astrocytes [6].
  • Using isoform-specific antibodies, PLD1 and PLD2 were found to be present predominantly in intracellular membranes, unlike the situation reported in other cells [9].
  • Detailed analysis of the intracellular localisation of PLD1 and PLD2 revealed that these isoforms are differentially localised within adipocytes, implying functionally distinct roles for PLD activity in distinct subcellular compartments [9].
  • Although LDs were induced in either PLD1- or PLD2-overexpressing CHO cells by oleic acid treatment, the stimulation of PLD activity was observed only in PLD1-CHO cells [10].

Associations of Pld2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Pld2

  • Recombinantly expressed PLD2 has high basal activity and is insensitive to GTP-binding protein activators of PLD1 [Colley, W. C., et al. (1997) Curr. Biol. 7, 191-201] [1].

Regulatory relationships of Pld2

  • Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blotting techniques, we demonstrated that the PLD isoform stimulated by ATP was PLD-2 [4].

Other interactions of Pld2

  • In the cerebellum of postnatal day 8 mice, PLD2 protein was abundantly expressed, while PLD1 expression was not detected [3].
  • The level of PLD2 expression was increased by APP overexpression [12].
  • Among the PLD isoforms, PLD2 expression was increased in all of the selected Fas-resistant clones [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pld2


  1. Regulation of phospholipase D2: selective inhibition of mammalian phospholipase D isoenzymes by alpha- and beta-synucleins. Jenco, J.M., Rawlingson, A., Daniels, B., Morris, A.J. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Down-regulation of melanogenesis by phospholipase D2 through ubiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation of tyrosinase. Kageyama, A., Oka, M., Okada, T., Nakamura, S., Ueyama, T., Saito, N., Hearing, V.J., Ichihashi, M., Nishigori, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Phospholipase D2 functions as a downstream signaling molecule of MAP kinase pathway in L1-stimulated neurite outgrowth of cerebellar granule neurons. Watanabe, H., Yamazaki, M., Miyazaki, H., Arikawa, C., Itoh, K., Sasaki, T., Maehama, T., Frohman, M.A., Kanaho, Y. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Activation of phospholipase D-2 by P2X(7) agonists in rat submandibular gland acini. Pérez-Andrés, E., Fernández-Rodriguez, M., González, M., Zubiaga, A., Vallejo, A., García, I., Matute, C., Pochet, S., Dehaye, J.P., Trueba, M., Marino, A., Gómez-Muñoz, A. J. Lipid Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Genomic analysis of murine phospholipase D1 and comparison to phospholipase D2 reveals an unusual difference in gene size. Redina, O.E., Frohman, M.A. Gene (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Increased expression of two phospholipase D isoforms during experimentally induced hippocampal mossy fiber outgrowth. Zhang, Y., Huang, P., Du, G., Kanaho, Y., Frohman, M.A., Tsirka, S.E. Glia (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Organization and alternative splicing of the murine phospholipase D2 gene. Redina, O.E., Frohman, M.A. Biochem. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Involvement of protein kinase C pathway in UVC-stimulated phospholipase D2 activity in Vero 76 cells. Kim, S., Choi, M.S., Choi, M.U. Exp. Mol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. 3T3-L1 adipocytes express two isoforms of phospholipase D in distinct subcellular compartments. Millar, C.A., Jess, T.J., Saqib, K.M., Wakelam, M.J., Gould, G.W. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Arf1-dependent PLD1 is localized to oleic acid-induced lipid droplets in NIH3T3 cells. Nakamura, N., Banno, Y., Tamiya-Koizumi, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation into astrocytes and glutamatergic neurons is associated with expression of functional and activable phospholipase D. Rujano, M.A., Pina, P., Servitja, J.M., Ahumada, A.M., Picatoste, F., Farrés, J., Sabrià, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Enhancement of phospholipase D activity by overexpression of amyloid precursor protein in P19 mouse embryonic carcinoma cells. Lee, M.J., Oh, J.Y., Park, H.T., Uhlinger, D.J., Kwak, J.Y. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential effects of Fas cross-linking on phospholipase D activation and related lipid metabolism in Fas-resistant A20 cells. Lim, S.Y., Lee, S.C., Shin, I., Han, J.S. Exp. Mol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Dexamethasone enhances phospholipase D activity in M-1 cells. Kim, W.J., Lee, M.J., Park, M.A., Jung, J.S., Uhlinger, D.J., Kwak, J.Y. Exp. Mol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
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