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Gene Review

Tmprss15  -  transmembrane protease, serine 15

Mus musculus

Synonyms: A130097D21Rik, Enterokinase, Enteropeptidase, Entk, Prss7, ...
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Disease relevance of Prss7


High impact information on Prss7

  • Enterokinase activity can be induced in epi mice by feeding its substrate trypsinogen, but not by trypsin or chymotrypsinogen [2].
  • Polyacrylamide gels containing extracts from control pancreas required prior activation of trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen (with exogenously added enterokinase and trypsin, respectively) to produce activity staining with specific synthetic substrates [3].
  • The longer isoform, which we designated MAT1 and RAT1, has a simple type II transmembrane protein structure, consisting of a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, a SEA (63-kDa sea urchin sperm protein, enteropeptidase, agrin) module, and a serine protease domain [4].
  • In contrast, messenger RNA levels of a few immune response, metabolism and protease genes (e.g. Prss7 and Mmp13) were higher in the tolerant C57BL/6 strain as compared to A/J.Genes and Immunity (2006) 7, 667-679. doi:10.1038/sj.gene.6364345; published online 26 October 2006 [5].
  • The proteinase portion domain shows 46-53% identity with mouse neurotrypsin, acrosin, hepsin and enteropeptidase [6].

Biological context of Prss7

  • To investigate this restricted expression pattern, mouse enterokinase cDNA was cloned, and the distribution of enterokinase mRNA and enzymatic activity were determined in adult mice and during gestation [7].
  • Enterokinase (enteropeptidase) is expressed only in proximal small intestine, where it initiates digestive enzyme activation by converting trypsinogen into trypsin [7].
  • Finally, we found that cleavage of all nine fusion proteins reflects accurate hydrolysis at the DDDDK(156) and DDDDK(201) sites when recombinant light chain enterokinase was used while non-specific processing at secondary sites were observed when these fusion proteins were treated with the native holoenzyme [8].

Anatomical context of Prss7


Associations of Prss7 with chemical compounds

  • Analysis of enterokinase sequences showed that a mucinlike domain near the NH2 terminus is composed of repeated approximately 15-amino acid Ser/Thr-rich motifs [7].
  • Further variants comprising DDDDK(156)SS, DDDDK(156)SD and DDDDK(156)RR showed that the minimal critical determinants for enhanced enterokinase cleavage are serine in the P1' position followed by a serine or a basic residue, lysine or arginine, in the P2' position [8].
  • Finally, cortisone acetate which has a major effect on this activity during suckling period was unable to influence adult small intestinal enteropeptidase activity [1].
  • Analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis, using the purified zymogens as substrates, revealed enterokinase isozymes and chymotrypsinogen-activating factors in both the intestinal extract and luminal fluid [9].
  • Thyroxine alone (1 microgram X g bw-1 X day-1) had no significant effect on enteropeptidase activity [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prss7

  • By Northern blotting and trypsinogen activation assays, enterokinase mRNA and enzymatic activity were undetectable in stomach, abundant in duodenum, and decreased distally until they were undetectable in midjejunum, ileum, and colon [7].
  • The hydrophilic transmembrane envelope protein was purified by one-step Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and then the fusion tag consisting of the six-histidine peptide and S peptide was removed by cleavage with enterokinase [10].


  1. Development of enteropeptidase activity in mouse small intestine: influence of hormones. Arsenault, P., Ménard, D. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of exchange exocrine pancreatic insufficiency on small intestine in the mouse. Kwong, W.K., Seetharam, B., Alpers, D.H. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency syndrome in CBA/J mice. II. Biochemical studies. Leiter, E.H., Dempsey, E.C., Eppig, J.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. The adrenal secretory serine protease AsP is a short secretory isoform of the transmembrane airway trypsin-like protease. Hansen, I.A., Fassnacht, M., Hahner, S., Hammer, F., Schammann, M., Meyer, S.R., Bicknell, A.B., Allolio, B. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Gene expression profiling in a mouse model for African trypanosomiasis. Kierstein, S., Noyes, H., Naessens, J., Nakamura, Y., Pritchard, C., Gibson, J., Kemp, S., Brass, A. Genes Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Cloning, genomic organization, chromosomal assignment and expression of a novel mosaic serine proteinase: epitheliasin. Jacquinet, E., Rao, N.V., Rao, G.V., Hoidal, J.R. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Structure of murine enterokinase (enteropeptidase) and expression in small intestine during development. Yuan, X., Zheng, X., Lu, D., Rubin, D.C., Pung, C.Y., Sadler, J.E. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. An SRLLR motif downstream of the scissile bond enhances enterokinase cleavage efficiency. Liew, O.W., Jenny Chong, P.C., Lim, Y.Z., Ang, C.X., Amy Lau, Y.C., Yandle, T.G., Brennan, S.O. Biochimie (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Two-dimensional gel analysis of zymogen-activating factors in the small intestine of the mouse. Isobe, M., Ogita, Z. J. Exp. Zool. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Soluble expression in Escherichia coli of murine endogenous retroviral transmembrane envelope protein having immunosuppressive activity. Kim, K.S., Kim, K.H., Choi, S.E., Yoon, J.W., Kang, Y. Protein Expr. Purif. (1999) [Pubmed]
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