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Gene Review

epi  -  exocrine pancreatic insufficiency

Mus musculus

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Disease relevance of epi

  • In arterioles, epi-illumination provoked vasomotion, while thrombus formation was significantly (p <0.05) delayed with first platelet deposition after 2.32 +/- 0.22 min and complete vessel occlusion within 20.07 +/- 3.84 min [1].
  • Mice treated with CDDP/epi gel i.t. alone or in combination with irradiation, had little systemic toxicity [2].
  • PURPOSE: Effects of combining local irradiation and intratumoral (i.t.) administration of cisplatin (CDDP) in a sustained-release drug delivery system (epi gel) were studied in a murine SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma model in mice [2].
  • CONCLUSION: In the human pancreatic cancer xenografts, i.t. administration of 5-FU/epi injectable gel provided significantly higher drug and/or metabolite concentrations for extended periods than was possible with either i.t. or i.p administration of drug solution [3].
  • Mast cells stained with mouse antihuman mast cell antitryptase clone AA1 as well as fibrosis, were quantitatively estimated in both epi- and endoneurial compartments [4].

Psychiatry related information on epi


High impact information on epi


Chemical compound and disease context of epi


Biological context of epi

  • Area-under-the-curve (AUC0-24 h) calculations resulted in an AUC value of 146.4% h for the 5-FU/epi gel formulation as compared with 45.7% h for 5-FU solution [10].

Anatomical context of epi

  • Double labeled studies of protein turnover revealed a longer half-life for large brush border proteins (mol wt above 175,000) in epi mice than in normal mice [8].
  • Enterokinase activity (a marker for duodenal mucosa) was nearly absent from the duodenum of epi mice [8].
  • In venules, epi-illumination induced rapid thrombus formation with first platelet deposition after 0.56 +/- 0.11 min and complete vessel occlusion within 5.05 +/- 0.45 min [11].
  • The passage of injected fluorescently labeled MBMMC within blood vessels of the striated skin muscle was observed by stroboscopic epi-illumination [12].
  • F4/80 was also present in numerous cells within the retina, epi- and subretinal membranes [13].

Associations of epi with chemical compounds


Other interactions of epi

  • Alkaline phosphatase (mol wt 145,000), trehalase (mol wt 95,000), and peptidase (mol wt 175,000) activities were unaffected in proximal segments from epi mice [8].
  • Mapping of electrical activity of epi- and endocardial left ventricular free wall revealed activation delay, increased heterogeneity in conduction and regional conduction block [16].
  • Neuraminidase and periodate treatment of the parasites increased the uptake of epi- and trypomastigote forms [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of epi


  1. A new model for quantitative in vivo microscopic analysis of thrombus formation and vascular recanalisation: the ear of the hairless (hr/hr) mouse. Roesken, F., Ruecker, M., Vollmar, B., Boeckel, N., Morgenstern, E., Menger, M.D. Thromb. Haemost. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Radiosensitization by intratumoral administration of cisplatin in a sustained-release drug delivery system. Ning, S., Yu, N., Brown, D.M., Kanekal, S., Knox, S.J. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Drug retention and distribution after intratumoral chemotherapy with fluorouracil/epinephrine injectable gel in human pancreatic cancer xenografts. Smith, J.P., Kanekal, S., Patawaran, M.B., Chen, J.Y., Jones, R.E., Orenberg, E.K., Yu, N.Y. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Leprosy: contribution of mast cells to epineurial collagenization. Montagna, N.A., de Oliveira, M.L., Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C.A., Chimelli, L. Clin. Neuropathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Deficiency of UBR1, a ubiquitin ligase of the N-end rule pathway, causes pancreatic dysfunction, malformations and mental retardation (Johanson-Blizzard syndrome). Zenker, M., Mayerle, J., Lerch, M.M., Tagariello, A., Zerres, K., Durie, P.R., Beier, M., Hülskamp, G., Guzman, C., Rehder, H., Beemer, F.A., Hamel, B., Vanlieferinghen, P., Gershoni-Baruch, R., Vieira, M.W., Dumic, M., Auslender, R., Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, V.L., Steinlicht, S., Rauh, M., Shalev, S.A., Thiel, C., Ekici, A.B., Winterpacht, A., Kwon, Y.T., Varshavsky, A., Reis, A. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Diabetes mellitus and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction in perk-/- mice reveals a role for translational control in secretory cell survival. Harding, H.P., Zeng, H., Zhang, Y., Jungries, R., Chung, P., Plesken, H., Sabatini, D.D., Ron, D. Mol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Diabetes and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in E2F1/E2F2 double-mutant mice. Iglesias, A., Murga, M., Laresgoiti, U., Skoudy, A., Bernales, I., Fullaondo, A., Moreno, B., Lloreta, J., Field, S.J., Real, F.X., Zubiaga, A.M. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of exchange exocrine pancreatic insufficiency on small intestine in the mouse. Kwong, W.K., Seetharam, B., Alpers, D.H. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of pancreatic atrophy and hypertrophy on the small intestine. Adler, G., Hausmann, W., Elsebach, K., Goke, B., Lorenz-Meyer, H., Herberg, L., Arnold, R. Gut (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Antitumor effect of intratumoral administration of fluorouracil/epinephrine injectable gel in C3H mice. Yu, N.Y., Orenberg, E.K., Luck, E.E., Brown, D.M. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Lack of in vivo function of CD31 in vascular thrombosis. Vollmar, B., Schmits, R., Kunz, D., Menger, M.D. Thromb. Haemost. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells roll on P-selectin under conditions of flow in vivo. Sriramarao, P., Anderson, W., Wolitzky, B.A., Broide, D.H. Lab. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. A mouse model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy induced by dispase. Valeria Cantó Soler, M., Gallo, J.E., Dodds, R.A., Suburo, A.M. Exp. Eye Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Blood-nerve barrier: ultrastructural and endothelial surface charge alterations following nerve crush. Bush, M.S., Reid, A.R., Allt, G. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. (+)-epi-Alpha-bisabolol [correction of bisbolol] is the wound-healing principle of Peperomia galioides: investigation of the in vivo wound-healing activity of related terpenoids. Villegas, L.F., Marçalo, A., Martin, J., Fernández, I.D., Maldonado, H., Vaisberg, A.J., Hammond, G.B. J. Nat. Prod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Remodeling of gap junctions in mouse hearts hypertrophied by forced retinoic acid signaling. van Veen, T.A., van Rijen, H.V., Wiegerinck, R.F., Opthof, T., Colbert, M.C., Clement, S., de Bakker, J.M., Jongsma, H.J. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of carbohydrates, periodate and enzymes in the process of endocytosis of Trypanosoma cruzi by macrophages. de Araújo Jorge, T.C., de Souza, W. Acta Trop. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Stem/progenitor cells in the postnatal inner ear of the GFP-nestin transgenic mouse. Lopez, I.A., Zhao, P.M., Yamaguchi, M., de Vellis, J., Espinosa-Jeffrey, A. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Quantitative angiogenesis in a syngeneic tumor spheroid model. Torres Filho, I.P., Hartley-Asp, B., Borgström, P. Microvasc. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Two distinct mechanisms are involved in stent thrombosis under flow conditions. Eto, K., Goto, S., Shimazaki, T., Sakakibara, M., Yoshida, M., Isshiki, T., Handa, S. Platelets (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. An immunoassay for canine pancreatic elastase 1 as an indicator for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs. Spillmann, T., Wittker, A., Teigelkamp, S., Eim, C., Burkhardt, E., Eigenbrodt, E., Sziegoleit, A. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
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