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Gene Review

NTNG1  -  netrin G1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: KIAA0976, LMNT1, Laminet-1, Lmnt1, Netrin-G1, ...
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Psychiatry related information on NTNG1

  • A translocation that disrupted the netrin G1 gene (NTNG1) was recently reported in a patient with the early seizure variant of Rett syndrome (RTT) [1].

High impact information on NTNG1

  • Netrin-G1 does not bind any of the known netrin receptors and its function is not known [2].
  • Netrin-G1 transcripts were first detected in midbrain and hindbrain regions by embryonic day 12 and reached highest levels at perinatal stages in various brain regions, including olfactory bulb mitral cells, thalamus, and deep cerebellar nuclei [3].
  • Unlike classical netrins, netrin-G1 consists of at least six isoforms of which five were predominantly anchored to the plasma membrane via glycosyl phosphatidyl-inositol linkages [3].
  • RESULTS: Specific haplotypes encompassing alternatively spliced exons of NTNG1 were associated with schizophrenia, and concordantly, messenger ribonucleic acid isoform expression was significantly different between schizophrenic and control brains [4].
  • METHODS: Twenty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from NTNG1 and 10 SNPs from NTNG2 were analyzed in 124 schizophrenic pedigrees [4].

Biological context of NTNG1

  • In conclusion, NTNG1 may use alternative splicing to diversify its function in a developmentally and tissue-specific manner [5].
  • The chromosome 1 breakpoint lies within the 3' part of NTNG1 and affects alternatively spliced transcripts, suggesting that the phenotype in this patient is the result of disturbed NTNG1 expression [6].
  • A family-based association study and gene expression analyses of netrin-G1 and -G2 genes in schizophrenia [4].
  • First, we determined the human genomic structure of netrin G1 by direct comparisons between cDNA and genome sequences, and by database searches [7].

Anatomical context of NTNG1

  • Our results suggest that the central nervous system is sensitive to NTNG1 expression levels and that NTNG1 is a novel candidate disease gene for RTT [6].

Other interactions of NTNG1

  • BACKGROUND: The netrin-G1 (NTNG1) and -G2 (NTNG2) genes, recently cloned from mouse, play a role in the formation and/or maintenance of glutamatergic neural circuitry [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NTNG1


  1. NTNG1 mutations are a rare cause of Rett syndrome. Archer, H.L., Evans, J.C., Millar, D.S., Thompson, P.W., Kerr, A.M., Leonard, H., Christodoulou, J., Ravine, D., Lazarou, L., Grove, L., Verity, C., Whatley, S.D., Pilz, D.T., Sampson, J.R., Clarke, A.J. Am. J. Med. Genet. A (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. The netrin-G1 ligand NGL-1 promotes the outgrowth of thalamocortical axons. Lin, J.C., Ho, W.H., Gurney, A., Rosenthal, A. Nat. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Netrin-G1: a novel glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked mammalian netrin that is functionally divergent from classical netrins. Nakashiba, T., Ikeda, T., Nishimura, S., Tashiro, K., Honjo, T., Culotti, J.G., Itohara, S. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. A family-based association study and gene expression analyses of netrin-G1 and -G2 genes in schizophrenia. Aoki-Suzuki, M., Yamada, K., Meerabux, J., Iwayama-Shigeno, Y., Ohba, H., Iwamoto, K., Takao, H., Toyota, T., Suto, Y., Nakatani, N., Dean, B., Nishimura, S., Seki, K., Kato, T., Itohara, S., Nishikawa, T., Yoshikawa, T. Biol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Human netrin-G1 isoforms show evidence of differential expression. Meerabux, J.M., Ohba, H., Fukasawa, M., Suto, Y., Aoki-Suzuki, M., Nakashiba, T., Nishimura, S., Itohara, S., Yoshikawa, T. Genomics (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Disruption of Netrin G1 by a balanced chromosome translocation in a girl with Rett syndrome. Borg, I., Freude, K., Kübart, S., Hoffmann, K., Menzel, C., Laccone, F., Firth, H., Ferguson-Smith, M.A., Tommerup, N., Ropers, H.H., Sargan, D., Kalscheuer, V.M. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Case-control association study of human netrin G1 gene in Japanese schizophrenia. Fukasawa, M., Aoki, M., Yamada, K., Iwayama-Shigeno, Y., Takao, H., Meerabux, J., Toyota, T., Nishikawa, T., Yoshikawa, T. J. Med. Dent. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
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