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Gene Review

APC  -  adenomatosis polyposis coli

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of APC

  • Swab samples were taken from up to 17 sites for determination of Aerobic Plate Counts at 37 degrees C (APC 37 degrees C) and Escherichia coli enumeration using the Petrifilm procedure [1].
  • At regular intervals (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days of storage at 4 degrees C), the ground beef was analyzed to measure mesophilic aerobic bacteria (APC), coliforms, psychrotrophic bacteria (PCT), and presumptive lactic acid bacteria (PLAB) and compared with the untreated control [2].

High impact information on APC

  • Gammadelta T cells formed stable conjugates with pamidronate-pulsed human tumor cells and both conjugate formation and gammadelta T cell activation were inhibited significantly by anti-LFA-1 mAb, suggesting the requirement of LFA-1-mediated interaction with APC for efficient gammadelta T cell activation [3].
  • Normal mouse serum proteins (NMS) compete for the processing and presentation of the foreign Ag bovine RNase by APC [4].
  • To test this, we compared the ability of NMS to compete for the presentation of RNase when it entered the APC via fluid-phase pinocytosis or through receptor-mediated uptake via the mannose receptor [4].
  • In the presence of autologous APC, the clones were also stimulated by a soluble high speed supernatant (HSS), but not by a schizont membrane-enriched, subcellular fraction prepared from homogenates of infected cells [5].
  • In fact, bovine WC1(+) gammadelta T cells can act as APC for alphabeta T cells, indicating they may express genes encoding proteins associated with innate immunity [6].

Biological context of APC

  • To further delineate the functional defects of bm12 mice in antigen presentation, we analyzed antigen-specific T lymphocyte clones derived from B6 or bm12 for their ability to recognize antigens presented on either B6 or bm12 APC [7].
  • A study of the effect of monovalent cations on the steady-state kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate N alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide by activated bovine plasma protein C (APC) has been undertaken [8].
  • A radiosensitive APC activity dissociates IL-2 secretion and activation-induced cell death by autoreactive T cell hybridomas [9].

Anatomical context of APC

  • The clone suppressed the Ag-induced proliferative responses of CD4+ Th cell clones without detectable cytotoxicity for both APC and responding T cells [10].
  • Although a mechanism for these phenomena is not yet clear, we speculate that the cBSA may have a greater affinity for antigen-presenting cells or for the T cell receptor, or that the altered structure may enhance recognition of the molecule by APC and/or helper T cells [11].
  • IL-2 production by a non-self reactive hybridoma was unaffected by irradiation of the APC [9].
  • Interaction of rHsp70 with the cell surface of bovine APC, presumably via a receptor, was shown on monocytes, monocyte derived macrophages and dendritic cell (DC) [12].

Associations of APC with chemical compounds

  • The dissociation constant, Ks, for NPGB to APC, at 7 degrees C, was not altered as [Na+] was increased, yielding a range of values of 18.5 X 10(-5) to 19.9 X 10(-5) M as [Na+] was varied from 12.5 to 62.5 mM [13].
  • The interaction of monovalent cations with activated bovine plasma protein C (APC) has been examined by kinetic methods, with H-D-phenylalanylpipecolylarginine-p-nitroanilide (S-2238) being employed as the substrate [14].
  • Some physical support for this mechanism was obtained upon the discovery that the binding (dissociation) constant for a competitive inhibitor of APC, p-aminobenzamidine, as determined by kinetic methodology, was independent of the concentration of Na+ and Cs+ [8].
  • Pretreatment of the APC with phorbol ester or lipopolysaccharide and IL-4 protected their ability to induce IL-2 secretion after gamma-irradiation [9].

Regulatory relationships of APC

  • This sequence is identical to that contained in the tetradecapeptide released from bovine protein C (PC) as a result of its conversion to its activated form (APC), except that Phe13 replaced the normal Pro13, in order to discourage cross-reactivity of antibodies to the carboxylterminal portion of APep with PC [15].

Other interactions of APC

  • The antibody pool obtained reacted with PC and showed virtually no cross-reactivity toward either APC or several typical plasma proteins [15].
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of blood contamination on the shear bond strength and failure site of 2 orthodontic primers (Transbond XT and Transbond MIP; 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) when used with adhesive-precoated brackets (APC II brackets; 3M/Unitek) [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of APC

  • To investigate the mechanism of rHsp70 as a carrier for antigen into the cell, we studied the interaction between APC and Fitc-labelled rHsp70, using FACS analysis and confocal microscopy [12].
  • On carcasses processed for export markets, where bacterial counts were obtained, the log10 mean of the APC (aerobic plate count) was 3.13 CFU/cm2, the geometric mean of the coliform count was 19 MPN/cm2, and the geometric mean of Escherichia coli was 13 MPN/cm2 [17].


  1. Distribution and sources of microbial contamination on beef carcasses. Bell, R.G. J. Appl. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Application of multiple antimicrobial interventions for microbial decontamination of commercial beef trim. Kang, D.H., Koohmaraie, M., Siragusa, G.R. J. Food Prot. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Requirement of species-specific interactions for the activation of human gamma delta T cells by pamidronate. Kato, Y., Tanaka, Y., Tanaka, H., Yamashita, S., Minato, N. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Constitutive competition by self proteins for antigen presentation can be overcome by receptor-enhanced uptake. Lorenz, R.G., Blum, J.S., Allen, P.M. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Recognition of soluble Theileria parva antigen by bovine helper T cell clones: characterization and partial purification of the antigen. Brown, W.C., Lonsdale-Eccles, J.D., DeMartini, J.C., Grab, D.J. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparative gene expression by WC1+ {gamma}{delta} and CD4+ {alpha}{beta} T lymphocytes, which respond to Anaplasma marginale, demonstrates higher expression of chemokines and other myeloid cell-associated genes by WC1+ {gamma}{delta} T cells. Lahmers, K.K., Hedges, J.F., Jutila, M.A., Deng, M., Abrahamsen, M.S., Brown, W.C. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Assessment of antigen-specific restriction sites on Ia molecules as defined by the bm12 mutation. Kanamori, S., Walsh, W.D., Hansen, T.H., Tse, H.Y. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Kinetic mechanism for stimulation by monovalent cations of the amidase activity of the plasma protease bovine activated protein C. Steiner, S.A., Castellino, F.J. Biochemistry (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. A radiosensitive APC activity dissociates IL-2 secretion and activation-induced cell death by autoreactive T cell hybridomas. Prasad, S.A., Fling, S.P., Gregerson, D.S. Int. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. CD8+ suppressor T cell clone capable of inhibiting the antigen- and anti-T cell receptor-induced proliferation of Th clones without cytolytic activity. Hisatsune, T., Enomoto, A., Nishijima, K., Minai, Y., Asano, Y., Tada, T., Kaminogawa, S. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Cationization of protein antigens. I. Alteration of immunogenic properties. Muckerheide, A., Apple, R.J., Pesce, A.J., Michael, J.G. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis heat shock protein 70 as a tool in control of paratuberculosis. Langelaar, M., Koets, A., Müller, K., van Eden, W., Noordhuizen, J., Howard, C., Hope, J., Rutten, V. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of monovalent cations on the pre-steady-state kinetic parameters of the plasma protease bovine activated protein C. Steiner, S.A., Castellino, F.J. Biochemistry (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Kinetic studies of the role of monovalent cations in the amidolytic activity of activated bovine plasma protein C. Steiner, S.A., Castellino, F.J. Biochemistry (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Generation of an antibody with a designed specificity difference for protein C and activated protein C. Zhang, L., Castellino, F.J. J. Protein Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of blood contamination on the shear bond strengths of conventional and hydrophilic primers. Cacciafesta, V., Sfondrini, M.F., Scribante, A., De Angelis, M., Klersy, C. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Microbiological quality of Australian beef carcass meat and frozen bulk packed beef. Vanderlinde, P.B., Shay, B., Murray, J. J. Food Prot. (1998) [Pubmed]
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