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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

G2 Phase

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Disease relevance of G2 Phase


High impact information on G2 Phase


Chemical compound and disease context of G2 Phase


Biological context of G2 Phase


Anatomical context of G2 Phase


Associations of G2 Phase with chemical compounds


Gene context of G2 Phase

  • The Cul4-containing E3 is active during ongoing replication, while SCF-Skp2 operates both in S and G2 phases [29].
  • Rad51-deficient cells arrested in G2 phase and formed supernumerary functional centrosomes, as assessed by light and serial section electron microscopy [19].
  • Synchronized cultures confirm that CYCD3;1-expressing (but not CYCD2;1-expressing) cells show increased G2-phase length and delayed activation of mitotic genes such as B-type cyclins, suggesting that CYCD3;1 has a specific G1/S role [30].
  • In a screen designed to isolate human cDNAs that complement a yeast G2 phase checkpoint mutation (mec1), we isolated a cDNA homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC34 gene [31].
  • To provide a link between p-FADD and NF-kappaB, cell culture studies demonstrated that overexpression of p-FADD leads to an increase in NF-kappaB activity and a decrease in the number of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, compared with cells expressing the nonphosphorylatable form of FADD or the vector control [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of G2 Phase


  1. Dose-related effects of psoralen and ultraviolet light on the cell cycle of murine melanoma cells. Varga, J.M., Wiesehahn, G., Bartholomew, J.C., Hearst, J.E. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Induction of tetraploid DNA content by simian virus 40 is dependent on T-antigen function in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Friedrich, T.D., Laffin, J., Lehman, J.M. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Cell cycle defect in connection with oxygen and iron sensitivity in Fanconi anemia lymphoblastoid cells. Poot, M., Gross, O., Epe, B., Pflaum, M., Hoehn, H. Exp. Cell Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Cell cycle effects of iron depletion on T-47D human breast cancer cells. Reddel, R.R., Hedley, D.W., Sutherland, R.L. Exp. Cell Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Arrest of S-phase progression is impaired in Fanconi anemia cells. Sala-Trepat, M., Rouillard, D., Escarceller, M., Laquerbe, A., Moustacchi, E., Papadopoulo, D. Exp. Cell Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Aurora-A and an interacting activator, the LIM protein Ajuba, are required for mitotic commitment in human cells. Hirota, T., Kunitoku, N., Sasayama, T., Marumoto, T., Zhang, D., Nitta, M., Hatakeyama, K., Saya, H. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. A mouse knock-in model exposes sequential proteolytic pathways that regulate p27Kip1 in G1 and S phase. Malek, N.P., Sundberg, H., McGrew, S., Nakayama, K., Kyriakides, T.R., Roberts, J.M., Kyriakidis, T.R. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Virus-mediated killing of cells that lack p53 activity. Raj, K., Ogston, P., Beard, P. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of calcineurin and Mpk1 in regulating the onset of mitosis in budding yeast. Mizunuma, M., Hirata, D., Miyahara, K., Tsuchiya, E., Miyakawa, T. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP arrests the growth of cultivated Cloudman melanoma cells in the late S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. DiPasquale, A., McGuire, J. J. Cell. Physiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of caffeine in Fanconi anemia. I. Restoration of a normal duration of G2 phase. Sabatier, L., Dutrillaux, B. Hum. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Deoxyribose 5-phosphate aldolase: an enzyme that peaks in the G2 phase of rat hepatoma cells. Lincoln, D.W., Hoffee, P. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Lack of cell-cycle specific effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on tumor cells in vitro: implications for combination tumor therapy with doxorubicin. van der Veen, A.H., ten Hagen, T.L., Seynhaeve, A.L., Eggermont, A.M. Cancer Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. The activity of bleomycin and modifiers of its clastogenic effect on the interphase chromatin of Indian muntjak fibroblasts. Tittelbach, H., Brüderlein, S., Gebhart, E. Cell Biol. Toxicol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. HIV-1 Vpr increases viral expression by manipulation of the cell cycle: a mechanism for selection of Vpr in vivo. Goh, W.C., Rogel, M.E., Kinsey, C.M., Michael, S.F., Fultz, P.N., Nowak, M.A., Hahn, B.H., Emerman, M. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Loss of splicing factor ASF/SF2 induces G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, but inhibits internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Li, X., Wang, J., Manley, J.L. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Distinct modes of cyclin E/cdc2c kinase regulation and S-phase control in mitotic and endoreduplication cycles of Drosophila embryogenesis. Sauer, K., Knoblich, J.A., Richardson, H., Lehner, C.F. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Cyclin B targets p34cdc2 for tyrosine phosphorylation. Meijer, L., Azzi, L., Wang, J.Y. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Centrosome amplification induced by DNA damage occurs during a prolonged G2 phase and involves ATM. Dodson, H., Bourke, E., Jeffers, L.J., Vagnarelli, P., Sonoda, E., Takeda, S., Earnshaw, W.C., Merdes, A., Morrison, C. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular markers and cell cycle inhibitors show the importance of cell cycle progression in nematode-induced galls and syncytia. de Almeida Engler, J., De Vleesschauwer, V., Burssens, S., Celenza, J.L., Inzé, D., Van Montagu, M., Engler, G., Gheysen, G. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Modulation of novel-length DOPA decarboxylase transcripts by 20-OH-ecdysone in a Drosophila melanogaster Kc cell subline. Swiderski, R.E., O'Connor, J.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of the G2-M checkpoint regulators cyclin B1 and cdc2 in nonmalignant and malignant human breast lesions: immunocytochemical and quantitative image analyses. Kawamoto, H., Koizumi, H., Uchikoshi, T. Am. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. The bacterial cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) triggers a G2 cell cycle checkpoint in mammalian cells without preliminary induction of DNA strand breaks. Sert, V., Cans, C., Tasca, C., Bret-Bennis, L., Oswald, E., Ducommun, B., De Rycke, J. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Non-specific elongation of cell cycle phases by cycloheximide in rat 3Y1 cells, and specific reduction of G1 phase elongation by simian virus 40 large T antigen. Okuda, A., Kimura, G. J. Cell. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Resistance of cultured Lewis lung carcinoma cell lines to tiazofurin. Finlay, G.J., Ching, L.M., Wilson, W.R., Baguley, B.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Cell cycle changes in the adenylate cyclase of C6 glioma cells. Howard, R.F., Sheppard, J.R. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Protein farnesyltransferase in plants: molecular characterization and involvement in cell cycle control. Qian, D., Zhou, D., Ju, R., Cramer, C.L., Yang, Z. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Cell cycle synchronization: reversible induction of G2 synchrony in cultured rodent and human diploid fibroblasts. Tobey, R.A., Oishi, N., Crissman, H.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Two E3 ubiquitin ligases, SCF-Skp2 and DDB1-Cul4, target human Cdt1 for proteolysis. Nishitani, H., Sugimoto, N., Roukos, V., Nakanishi, Y., Saijo, M., Obuse, C., Tsurimoto, T., Nakayama, K.I., Nakayama, K., Fujita, M., Lygerou, Z., Nishimoto, T. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. The D-type cyclin CYCD3;1 is limiting for the G1-to-S-phase transition in Arabidopsis. Menges, M., Samland, A.K., Planchais, S., Murray, J.A. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Cloning of the human homolog of the CDC34 cell cycle gene by complementation in yeast. Plon, S.E., Leppig, K.A., Do, H.N., Groudine, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Phosphorylated FADD induces NF-kappaB, perturbs cell cycle, and is associated with poor outcome in lung adenocarcinomas. Chen, G., Bhojani, M.S., Heaford, A.C., Chang, D.C., Laxman, B., Thomas, D.G., Griffin, L.B., Yu, J., Coppola, J.M., Giordano, T.J., Lin, L., Adams, D., Orringer, M.B., Ross, B.D., Beer, D.G., Rehemtulla, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Cdc2-independent induction of premature mitosis by okadaic acid in HeLa cells. Ghosh, S., Paweletz, N., Schroeter, D. Exp. Cell Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of overexpressing the transcription factor E2F2 on cell cycle progression in rabbit corneal endothelial cells. Joyce, N.C., Harris, D.L., Mc Alister, J.C., Ali, R.R., Larkin, D.F. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Enhanced anticancer effect of vincristine with methionine infusion after methionine-depleting total parenteral nutrition in tumor-bearing rats. Goseki, N., Nagahama, T., Maruyama, M., Endo, M. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Visualization of the interphase chromosomes of Ornithogalum virens and Muntiacus muntjak. Brown, D.B., Stack, S.M., Mitchell, J.B., Bedford, J.S. Cytobiologie. (1979) [Pubmed]
  37. Role of SS bridges in mitotic condensation of chromatin. Olszewska, M.J., Marciniak, K. Folia histochemica et cytochemica. (1980) [Pubmed]
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