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Gene Review

Prm  -  Paramyosin

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 0106/05, CG5939, Dmel\CG5939, FBgn0003149, PM, ...
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High impact information on Prm

  • The predicted protein contains several extended amphipathic helices, and its similarity to myosin heavy chain tails, paramyosin, and kinesin suggests a similar type of coiled-coil protein interaction [1].
  • Disruption of the dADAR gene results in totally unedited sodium (Para), calcium (Dmca1A), and chloride (DrosGluCl-alpha) channels, a very prolonged recovery from anoxic stupor, a vulnerability to heat shock and increased O2 demands, and neuronal degeneration in aged flies [2].
  • Drosophila paramyosin is important for myoblast fusion and essential for myofibril formation [3].
  • We conclude that paramyosin plays an unexpected role in myoblast fusion and is important for myofibril assembly and muscle contraction [4].
  • We confirmed that these defects are paramyosin-specific by rescuing the homozygous paramyosin mutant to adulthood with a paramyosin transgene [4].

Biological context of Prm

  • One group (hinge-switch mutants) had a portion of the endogenous S2 hinge region replaced by an embryonic version; the other group (paramyosin mutants) had one or more putative phosphorylation sites near the N-terminus of paramyosin disabled [5].
  • Antibody analysis of normal embryos demonstrated that paramyosin accumulates as a cytoplasmic protein in early embryo development before assembling into thick filaments [4].
  • The expression of miniparamyosin is controlled by two enhancers, AB and TX, but a BF modulator is required to ensure the correct levels of expression in each particular muscle [6].
  • Several cDNA clones encoding the complete Drosophila paramyosin sequence, including two potential polyadenylation sites, have been obtained [7].
  • Southern analysis and in situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes indicate that in Drosophila the paramyosin gene is single copy, located on the left arm of the third chromosome at region 66D14 [7].

Anatomical context of Prm


Associations of Prm with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prm

  • Two-dimensional and one-dimensional Western blot analyses have revealed that miniparamyosin has several isoforms, focusing over a very wide pH range, all of which are phosphorylated in vivo [12].
  • Immunofluorescence and EM data indicate that miniparamyosin is mainly located in the M line and at both ends of the thick filaments in Drosophila indirect flight muscles, while paramyosin is present all along the thick filaments [12].


  1. Bicaudal-D, a Drosophila gene involved in developmental asymmetry: localized transcript accumulation in ovaries and sequence similarity to myosin heavy chain tail domains. Suter, B., Romberg, L.M., Steward, R. Genes Dev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutation in pre-mRNA adenosine deaminase markedly attenuates neuronal tolerance to O2 deprivation in Drosophila melanogaster. Ma, E., Gu, X.Q., Wu, X., Xu, T., Haddad, G.G. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Drosophila paramyosin is important for myoblast fusion and essential for myofibril formation. Liu, H., Mardahl-Dumesnil, M., Sweeney, S.T., O'Kane, C.J., Bernstein, S.I. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Drosophila paramyosin is important for myoblast fusion and essential for myofibril formation. Liu, H., Mardahl-Dumesnil, M., Sweeney, S.T., O'Kane, C.J., Bernstein, S.I. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Passive stiffness in Drosophila indirect flight muscle reduced by disrupting paramyosin phosphorylation, but not by embryonic Myosin s2 hinge substitution. Hao, Y., Miller, M.S., Swank, D.M., Liu, H., Bernstein, S.I., Maughan, D.W., Pollack, G.H. Biophys. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Co-operation between enhancers modulates quantitative expression from the Drosophila Paramyosin/miniparamyosin gene in different muscle types. Marco-Ferreres, R., Vivar, J., Arredondo, J.J., Portillo, F., Cervera, M. Mech. Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Drosophila melanogaster paramyosin: developmental pattern, mapping and properties deduced from its complete coding sequence. Vinós, J., Maroto, M., Garesse, R., Marco, R., Cervera, M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification and characterization of Drosophila melanogaster paramyosin. Vinós, J., Domingo, A., Marco, R., Cervera, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. An 'Old World' scorpion beta-toxin that recognizes both insect and mammalian sodium channels. Gordon, D., Ilan, N., Zilberberg, N., Gilles, N., Urbach, D., Cohen, L., Karbat, I., Froy, O., Gaathon, A., Kallen, R.G., Benveniste, M., Gurevitz, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunocytochemical electron microscopic study and western blot analysis of paramyosin in different invertebrate muscle cell types of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the earthworm Eisenia foetida, and the snail Helix aspersa. Royuela, M., García-Anchuelo, R., Arenas, M.I., Cervera, M., Fraile, B., Paniagua, R. Histochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Paramyosin phosphorylation site disruption affects indirect flight muscle stiffness and power generation in Drosophila melanogaster. Liu, H., Miller, M.S., Swank, D.M., Kronert, W.A., Maughan, D.W., Bernstein, S.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Drosophila paramyosin/miniparamyosin gene products show a large diversity in quantity, localization, and isoform pattern: a possible role in muscle maturation and function. Maroto, M., Arredondo, J., Goulding, D., Marco, R., Bullard, B., Cervera, M. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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