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Gene Review

Adar  -  Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: ADAR, ADAR1, Adenosine deaminase that act on RNA, CG12598, Dmel\CG12598, ...
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Disease relevance of Adar

  • Mutations of Drosophila ADAR (dADAR) results in neuronal dysfunction and hypersensitivity to oxygen deprivation [1].
  • Indeed, the mutation of ADAR in Drosophila (dADAR) results in many pathological and physiological changes, such as sensitivity to hypoxia and neuronal degeneration [2].
  • We describe expression of the ADAR dsRNA binding domains in E. coli using current versions of the T7 promoter based Studier vectors as well as the purification of the domains [3].

High impact information on Adar


Biological context of Adar

  • Taken together, these findings show that both transcription and processing of dADAR transcripts are under strict developmental control and suggest that the process of RNA editing in Drosophila is dynamically regulated [6].
  • However, dimerization can be uncoupled from dsRNA-binding activity, as a deletion of the N-terminus (amino acids 1-46) yields a monomeric ADAR that retains the ability to bind dsRNA but is inactive in an editing assay, demonstrating that ADAR is only active as a dimer [7].
  • We propose a model for ADAR dimerization whereby ADAR monomers first contact dsRNA; however, it is only when the second monomer binds and a dimer is formed that deamination occurs [7].
  • The Adar transcript itself is edited in adult wild-type flies to generate an isoform with a serine to glycine substitution close to the ADAR active site [5].
  • In order to further characterize the neuronal role of dADAR and understand the basis for the resistance to the oxidative stress, we investigated the effect of dADAR on the expression of genes encoding scavengers of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both dADAR mutant and overexpression flies [1].

Associations of Adar with chemical compounds

  • We have identified a homolog of the ADAR (adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) class of RNA editases from Drosophila, dADAR [6].
  • These data clearly demonstrate that, through the editing of ion channels as targets, dADAR, for which there are mammalian homologues, is essential for adaptation to altered environmental stresses such as O2 deprivation and for the prevention of premature neuronal degeneration [4].
  • Pre-mRNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR) is involved in many physiological processes by either directly converting adenosine to inosine in certain pre-mRNAs or indirectly regulating expression of certain genes [1].

Other interactions of Adar

  • The Dalpha6 transcript is a target of the Drosophila adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (dADAR) [8].
  • CONCLUSION: Similar to several other neuronal proteins of Drosophila, synapsin is modified by ADAR-mediated recoding at the pre-mRNA level [9].
  • Our data show that the expression of the genes encoding known ROS scavengers [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase] is not regulated by dADAR [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Adar

  • Twelve genes from the final list were further examined by sequencing the RT-PCR products of these genes from wild-type and dADAR mutant flies [2].
  • We conclude that the combination of immunoaffinity enrichment of inosine-containing mRNA, DNA microarrays, and sequence comparison could facilitate the discovery of new dADAR substrates, which in turn allows us to better understand the targets of dADAR and the biological function of A-to-I RNA editing in flies [2].


  1. Regulatory role of dADAR in ROS metabolism in Drosophila CNS. Chen, L., Rio, D.C., Haddad, G.G., Ma, E. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of new targets of Drosophila pre-mRNA adenosine deaminase. Xia, S., Yang, J., Su, Y., Qian, J., Ma, E., Haddad, G.G. Physiol. Genomics (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Purification and assay of recombinant ADAR proteins expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris or in Escherichia coli. Ring, G.M., O'Connell, M.A., Keegan, L.P. Methods Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutation in pre-mRNA adenosine deaminase markedly attenuates neuronal tolerance to O2 deprivation in Drosophila melanogaster. Ma, E., Gu, X.Q., Wu, X., Xu, T., Haddad, G.G. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Tuning of RNA editing by ADAR is required in Drosophila. Keegan, L.P., Brindle, J., Gallo, A., Leroy, A., Reenan, R.A., O'Connell, M.A. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. dADAR, a Drosophila double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase is highly developmentally regulated and is itself a target for RNA editing. Palladino, M.J., Keegan, L.P., O'Connell, M.A., Reenan, R.A. RNA (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. An ADAR that edits transcripts encoding ion channel subunits functions as a dimer. Gallo, A., Keegan, L.P., Ring, G.M., O'Connell, M.A. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Novel putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes, Dalpha5, Dalpha6 and Dalpha7, in Drosophila melanogaster identify a new and highly conserved target of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-mediated A-to-I pre-mRNA editing. Grauso, M., Reenan, R.A., Culetto, E., Sattelle, D.B. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. The conserved protein kinase-A target motif in synapsin of Drosophila is effectively modified by pre-mRNA editing. Diegelmann, S., Nieratschker, V., Werner, U., Hoppe, J., Zars, T., Buchner, E. BMC neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
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