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Gene Review

betB  -  betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase

Escherichia coli UTI89

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Disease relevance of betB


High impact information on betB


Chemical compound and disease context of betB


Biological context of betB


Associations of betB with chemical compounds

  • Plants producing both CDH and BADH generally accumulated higher amounts of glycine betaine than plants producing CDH alone, as determined by 1H NMR analysis [9].
  • The spinach E103K mutant was almost inactive, whereas the E103Q mutant showed a similar activity for the oxidation of betaine aldehyde to that of wild type BADH, but a lower affinity for omega-aminoaldehydes [10].
  • As there were significant amounts of BADH protein and activity in P. aeruginosa cells grown on glucose plus choline, as well as the BADH activity exhibiting tolerance to salt, it is likely that glycine betaine is synthesized in vivo and could play an important osmoprotectant role under conditions of infection [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of betB


  1. Molecular characterization of mutants affected in the osmoprotectant-dependent induction of phospholipase C in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Sage, A.E., Vasil, A.I., Vasil, M.L. Mol. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Rapid purification and properties of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Velasco-García, R., Mújica-Jiménez, C., Mendoza-Hernández, G., Muñoz-Clares, R.A. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of an Escherichia coli gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH): structural similarity to mammalian ALDHs and a plant BADH. Boyd, L.A., Adam, L., Pelcher, L.E., McHughen, A., Hirji, R., Selvaraj, G. Gene (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Production of the Escherichia coli betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, in transgenic plants. Holmström, K.O., Welin, B., Mandal, A., Kristiansdottir, I., Teeri, T.H., Lamark, T., Strøm, A.R., Palva, E.T. Plant J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cloning, over-expression in Escherichia coli, and regulation by choline and salt. Velasco-García, R., Villalobos, M.A., Ramírez-Romero, M.A., Mújica-Jiménez, C., Iturriaga, G., Muñoz-Clares, R.A. Arch. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Site-directed mutagenesis and homology modeling indicate an important role of cysteine 439 in the stability of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. González-Segura, L., Velasco-García, R., Rudiño-Piñera, E., Mújica-Jiménez, C., Muñoz-Clares, R.A. Biochimie (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular characterization of the bet genes encoding glycine betaine synthesis in Sinorhizobium meliloti 102F34. Pocard, J.A., Vincent, N., Boncompagni, E., Smith, L.T., Poggi, M.C., Le Rudulier, D. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Purification and characterization of osmoregulatory betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. Falkenberg, P., Strøm, A.R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Improved tolerance to salinity and low temperature in transgenic tobacco producing glycine betaine. Holmström, K.O., Somersalo, S., Mandal, A., Palva, T.E., Welin, B. J. Exp. Bot. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Overproduction of spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli. Structural and functional properties of wild-type, mutants and E. coli enzymes. Incharoensakdi, A., Matsuda, N., Hibino, T., Meng, Y.L., Ishikawa, H., Hara, A., Funaguma, T., Takabe, T., Takabe, T. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two kinds of betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase in betaine-accumulating mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. Hibino, T., Meng, Y.L., Kawamitsu, Y., Uehara, N., Matsuda, N., Tanaka, Y., Ishikawa, H., Baba, S., Takabe, T., Wada, K., Ishii, T., Takabe, T. Plant Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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