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Gene Review

W  -  Wrinkled

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG5123, Cell death protein W, Dmel\CG5123, HID, Hid, ...
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Disease relevance of W


High impact information on W


Biological context of W

  • Conversely, cell death induced by overexpression of Hid was suppressed by gain-of-function mutations of the genes coding for MEK and ERK [7].
  • A second Drosophila IAP, DIAP2, also binds Rpr and Hid and inhibits apoptosis in multiple contexts when overexpressed [8].
  • Increasing the genetic dose of diap2 results in an increased immune response, whereas expression of Rpr or Hid results in down-regulation of DIAP2 protein levels [8].
  • Although the abnormal wing phenotype caused by the Wrinkled (W) mutation is quite different from the one resulting from the loss-of-function hid mutations, the characterization of EMS-induced W revertants reveals that W is actually an antimorphic allele of hid [9].
  • Molecular genetic studies in Drosophila have revealed the existence of three novel apoptotic activators, reaper, head involution defective and grim [10].

Anatomical context of W


Associations of W with chemical compounds

  • Nevertheless, interaction with Hid is not sufficient for Op-IAP to inhibit apoptosis induced by Hid overexpression or by treatment with actinomycin D, indicating that additional sequence elements are required for the anti-apoptotic function of Op-IAP [16].

Regulatory relationships of W


Other interactions of W


  1. Amsacta moorei Entomopoxvirus inhibitor of apoptosis suppresses cell death by binding Grim and Hid. Li, Q., Liston, P., Schokman, N., Ho, J.M., Moyer, R.W. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. A highly conserved arginine is critical for the functional folding of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) BIR domains. Luque, L.E., Grape, K.P., Junker, M. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Ras promotes cell survival in Drosophila by downregulating hid expression. Kurada, P., White, K. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. The Drosophila gene hid is a direct molecular target of Ras-dependent survival signaling. Bergmann, A., Agapite, J., McCall, K., Steller, H. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. The head involution defective gene of Drosophila melanogaster functions in programmed cell death. Grether, M.E., Abrams, J.M., Agapite, J., White, K., Steller, H. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of Drosophila IAP1 degradation and apoptosis by reaper and ubcD1. Ryoo, H.D., Bergmann, A., Gonen, H., Ciechanover, A., Steller, H. Nat. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Argos induces programmed cell death in the developing Drosophila eye by inhibition of the Ras pathway. Sawamoto, K., Taguchi, A., Hirota, Y., Yamada, C., Jin, M.H., Okano, H. Cell Death Differ. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. The Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) DIAP2 is dispensable for cell survival, required for the innate immune response to gram-negative bacterial infection, and can be negatively regulated by the reaper/hid/grim family of IAP-binding apoptosis inducers. Huh, J.R., Foe, I., Muro, I., Chen, C.H., Seol, J.H., Yoo, S.J., Guo, M., Park, J.M., Hay, B.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Embryonic head involution and rotation of male terminalia require the Drosophila locus head involution defective. Abbott, M.K., Lengyel, J.A. Genetics (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Facing death in the fly: genetic analysis of apoptosis in Drosophila. McCall, K., Steller, H. Trends Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. A balance between the diap1 death inhibitor and reaper and hid death inducers controls steroid-triggered cell death in Drosophila. Yin, V.P., Thummel, C.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Lack of involvement of mitochondrial factors in caspase activation in a Drosophila cell-free system. Means, J.C., Muro, I., Clem, R.J. Cell Death Differ. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Cooperative functions of the reaper and head involution defective genes in the programmed cell death of Drosophila central nervous system midline cells. Zhou, L., Schnitzler, A., Agapite, J., Schwartz, L.M., Steller, H., Nambu, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetic dissection of behavior: modulation of locomotion by light in the Drosophila melanogaster larva requires genetically distinct visual system functions. Busto, M., Iyengar, B., Campos, A.R. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Hid can induce, but is not required for autophagy in polyploid larval Drosophila tissues. Juhász, G., Sass, M. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Sequence requirements for Hid binding and apoptosis regulation in the baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis Op-IAP. Hid binds Op-IAP in a manner similar to Smac binding of XIAP. Wright, C.W., Clem, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Dissection of DIAP1 functional domains via a mutant replacement strategy. Yokokura, T., Dresnek, D., Huseinovic, N., Lisi, S., Abdelwahid, E., Bangs, P., White, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Over-expression of DREF in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc induces apoptosis and a notching wing phenotype. Yoshida, H., Inoue, Y.H., Hirose, F., Sakaguchi, K., Matsukage, A., Yamaguchi, M. Genes Cells (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. The mitochondrial ARTS protein promotes apoptosis through targeting XIAP. Gottfried, Y., Rotem, A., Lotan, R., Steller, H., Larisch, S. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Biochemical and genetic interactions between Drosophila caspases and the proapoptotic genes rpr, hid, and grim. Song, Z., Guan, B., Bergman, A., Nicholson, D.W., Thornberry, N.A., Peterson, E.P., Steller, H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. The effector caspases drICE and dcp-1 have partially overlapping functions in the apoptotic pathway in Drosophila. Xu, D., Wang, Y., Willecke, R., Chen, Z., Ding, T., Bergmann, A. Cell Death Differ. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. A screen for mutations that suppress the phenotype of Drosophila armadillo, the beta-catenin homolog. Cox, R.T., McEwen, D.G., Myster, D.L., Duronio, R.J., Loureiro, J., Peifer, M. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
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