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Gene Review

GLUL  -  glutamate-ammonia ligase

Canis lupus familiaris

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High impact information on GLUL

  • However, there was no apparent significant difference between the two cell lines in the pattern of changes of GS activity in response to glutamine [1].
  • The glutamine synthetase (GS) activity of both cell lines was elevated (up to x 9) as glutamine was depleted from normal media (GMEM + gmine) [1].
  • The high activity of GS was maintained during McCoy cell growth in GMEM + gmate [1].
  • In the human and mouse GS genes, extra exons are also found at the corresponding site of the intron 1 but with different sizes [2].
  • An exon-trapping experiment for the GS gene in COS-7, Madin-Darby canine kidney and SK-N-SH cells revealed that the pattern of alternative splicing is variable in different cell types [2].

Biological context of GLUL

  • The genomic structure of dog GS shown in the present study is basically similar to that of other mammals in that it is composed of seven exons and six introns [2].

Anatomical context of GLUL


Associations of GLUL with chemical compounds


  1. Uptake of glutamate, not glutamine synthetase, regulates adaptation of mammalian cells to glutamine-free medium. McDermott, R.H., Butler, M. J. Cell. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. A splice variant acquiring an extra transcript leader region decreases the translation of glutamine synthetase gene. Shin, D., Park, S., Park, C. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. NMR-based identification of intra- and extracellular compartments of the brain Pi peak. Gilboe, D.D., Kintner, D.B., Anderson, M.E., Fitzpatrick, J.H. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Central respiratory effects of glutamine synthesis inhibition in dogs. Hoop, B., Systrom, D.M., Shih, V.E., Kazemi, H. J. Appl. Physiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Severe involvement of cerebral neopallidum in a dog with hepatic encephalopathy. Morita, T., Mizutani, Y., Michimae, Y., Sawada, M., Sato, K., Hikasa, Y., Shimada, A. Vet. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of glucocorticoids on glutamine metabolism in skeletal muscle. Muhlbacher, F., Kapadia, C.R., Colpoys, M.F., Smith, R.J., Wilmore, D.W. Am. J. Physiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
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