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Gene Review

Glul  -  glutamate-ammonia ligase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: GS, Glns, Glutamate decarboxylase, Glutamate--ammonia ligase, Glutamine synthetase
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  1. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase in the mouse kidney: a novel mechanism of adaptation to metabolic acidosis. Conjard, A., Komaty, O., Delage, H., Boghossian, M., Martin, M., Ferrier, B., Baverel, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and characterization of the rat glutamine synthetase-encoding gene. van de Zande, L., Labruyère, W.T., Arnberg, A.C., Wilson, R.H., van den Bogaert, A.J., Das, A.T., van Oorschot, D.A., Frijters, C., Charles, R., Moorman, A.F. Gene (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Glucocorticoid induced expression of glutamine synthetase in hepatoma cells. Gaunitz, F., Heise, K., Schumann, R., Gebhardt, R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Changes in distribution and activity of glutamine synthetase in carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis in the rat: potential role in hyperammonemia. Gebhardt, R., Reichen, J. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Ammonia-induced brain edema and intracranial hypertension in rats after portacaval anastomosis. Blei, A.T., Olafsson, S., Therrien, G., Butterworth, R.F. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Glutamine synthetase modulation in the brain of rats subjected to deprivation of paradoxical sleep. Sallanon-Moulin, M., Touret, M., Didier-Bazes, M., Roudier, V., Fages, C., Tardy, M., Jouvet, M. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of modafinil-induced wakefulness on glutamine synthetase regulation in the rat brain. Touret, M., Sallanon-Moulin, M., Fages, C., Roudier, V., Didier-Bazes, M., Roussel, B., Tardy, M., Jouvet, M. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Amino-acid metabolism enzyme activities in rat white adipose tissue. López-Soriano, F.J., Alemany, M. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Glutamine-stimulated modification and degradation of glutamine synthetase in hepatoma tissue culture cells. Arad, G., Freikopf, A., Kulka, R.G. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. "Transdifferentiation" of C6 glial cells in culture. Parker, K.K., Norenberg, M.D., Vernadakis, A. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Glutamine synthetase: glial localization in brain. Martinez-Hernandez, A., Bell, K.P., Norenberg, M.D. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Hepatic response to right ventricular pressure overload. Gieling, R.G., Ruijter, J.M., Maas, A.A., Van Den Bergh Weerman, M.A., Dingemans, K.P., ten Kate, F.J., Lekanne dit Deprez, R.H., Moorman, A.F., Lamers, W.H. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Acquisition of antigens characteristic of adult pericentral hepatocytes by differentiating fetal hepatoblasts in vitro. Bennett, A.L., Paulson, K.E., Miller, R.E., Darnell, J.E. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes and glycogen synthase in rat and human livers, hepatomas, and hepatoma cell cultures. Hammond, K.D., Balinsky, D. Cancer Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Methionine sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor, attenuates increased extracellular potassium activity during acute hyperammonemia. Sugimoto, H., Koehler, R.C., Wilson, D.A., Brusilow, S.W., Traystman, R.J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Analysis of glucocorticoid-inducible genes in wild-type and variant rat hepatoma cells. Vannice, J.L., Grove, J.R., Ringold, G.M. Mol. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Glutamate-induced glutamine synthetase expression in retinal Muller cells after short-term ocular hypertension in the rat. Shen, F., Chen, B., Danias, J., Lee, K.C., Lee, H., Su, Y., Podos, S.M., Mittag, T.W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Lipopolysaccharide-induced tyrosine nitration and inactivation of hepatic glutamine synthetase in the rat. Görg, B., Wettstein, M., Metzger, S., Schliess, F., Häussinger, D. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. A silencer element in the first intron of the glutamine synthetase gene represses induction by glucocorticoids. Gaunitz, F., Heise, K., Gebhardt, R. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Nucleotide sequence of rat glutamine synthetase mRNA. van de Zande, L., Labruyère, W.T., Smaling, M.M., Moorman, A.F., Wilson, R.H., Charles, R., Lamers, W.H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. The distribution of glutamine synthetase in subcellular fractions of rat brain. Dennis, S.C., Lai, J.C., Clark, J.B. Brain Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical localization of glutamine synthetase in the superficial pineal gland of the rat. Krstić, R., Nicolas, D. Acta Histochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Cloning and functional characterization of the rat glutamine synthetase gene. Mill, J.F., Mearow, K.M., Purohit, H.J., Haleem-Smith, H., King, R., Freese, E. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Heterogeneous distribution of glutamine synthetase among rat liver parenchymal cells in situ and in primary culture. Gebhardt, R., Mecke, D. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Rat renal gamma-glutamyltransferase activity: a reaction of glutamine synthetase. Bregar, F.W., Hughey, R.P., Curthoys, N.P. Can. J. Biochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Action of endothelin-1 on rat astrocytes through the ETB receptor. Hama, H., Sakurai, T., Kasuya, Y., Fujiki, M., Masaki, T., Goto, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Glutamate transport, glutamine synthetase and phosphate-activated glutaminase in rat CNS white matter. A quantitative study. Hassel, B., Boldingh, K.A., Narvesen, C., Iversen, E.G., Skrede, K.K. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Oxidative stress involves in astrocytic alterations induced by manganese. Chen, C.J., Liao, S.L. Exp. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Insulin-like growth factor 1 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced glutamine synthetase activity in cultured L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. Kimura, K., Kanda, F., Okuda, S., Chihara, K. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Developmental regulation of glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase activity in astrocyte cultures differentiated in vitro. Stanimirovic, D.B., Ball, R., Small, D.L., Muruganandam, A. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Development of glial cells cultured from prenatally alcohol treated rat brain: effect of supplementation of the maternal alcohol diet with a grape extract. Ledig, M., Holownia, A., Copin, J.C., Tholey, G., Anokhina, I. Neurochem. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Barrier properties of testis microvessels. Holash, J.A., Harik, S.I., Perry, G., Stewart, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. A rapid method to study heterogeneous gene expression in liver by direct assay of messenger RNA from periportal and perivenous cell lysates. Saarinen, J., Saarelainen, R., Lindros, K.O. Hepatology (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Coexpression of glutamine synthetase and carbamoylphosphate synthase I genes in pancreatic hepatocytes of rat. Yeldandi, A.V., Tan, X.D., Dwivedi, R.S., Subbarao, V., Smith, D.D., Scarpelli, D.G., Rao, M.S., Reddy, J.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Alterations of hepatic enzyme levels and of the acinar distribution of glutamine synthetase in response to experimental liver injury in the rat. Gebhardt, R., Burger, H.J., Heini, H., Schreiber, K.L., Mecke, D. Hepatology (1988) [Pubmed]
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