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Gene Review

GLUL  -  glutamate-ammonia ligase

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of GLUL

  • There is homology between the mammalian GS enzymes and glutamine synthetases obtained from plants and cyanobacteria but no obvious homology between the CHO cell GS sequence and that of other ATP hydrolysing enzymes [1].

Psychiatry related information on GLUL


High impact information on GLUL


Biological context of GLUL


Anatomical context of GLUL

  • In membranes containing the intact undigested A2AR protein, guanine nucleotides induce a small to insignificant decrease in agonist binding, which is atypical of stimulatory GS-coupled receptors [7].
  • Membrane proteins of Mr 240,000, 130,000, and 85,000 (GS-proteins) were rapidly and selectively phosphorylated in particulate fractions of rabbit aortic smooth muscle in the presence of [Mg-32P]ATP and low concentrations of cGMP (Ka = 0.01 microM) or cAMP (Ka = 0.2 microM) [8].
  • Effects of adenosine analogues on ADP ribosylation of GS protein in coronary artery [9].

Associations of GLUL with chemical compounds

  • Our data, therefore, suggest that, unless proteolysis occurs, the A2AR in all tissues studied is tightly associated with the GS protein and displays minimal guanine nucleotide modulation of agonist binding, which makes the A2AR an atypical stimulatory receptor [7].
  • ADP, chloride ion, and metal ion binding to bovine brain glutamine synthetase [10].
  • These results indicate that the action of methionine sulfoxide may not be directly due to the oxidation of GS by free radicals [2].
  • In this report, we demonstrate that methionine sulfoxide inhibits GS by about 50% and CPK by about 25% at 20 mM concentration [2].
  • The glutamine synthetase and the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase activities of Neurospora crassa were lost in a culture without carbon source only when in the presence of air [11].

Enzymatic interactions of GLUL


Other interactions of GLUL


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GLUL

  • These cells do not express carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I. Using immunocytochemistry, we show here that there is little or no zonation of glutamine synthetase in avian liver [4].
  • In situ hybridization with a cloned glutamine synthetase cDNA probe showed the distribution of glutamine synthetase mRNA in both mammalian and avian liver to correspond to the distribution of immunoreactive protein [4].
  • The membrane-bound and cytosolic forms of G-kinase phosphorylated the Mr 130,000 GS-protein with the same specificity as determined by two-dimensional peptide mapping [8].
  • Immunodiffusion of antiretinal GS antibodies gave a single line of precipitation with both crude retinal and brain enzymes as well as purified enzyme preparations [16].
  • The immunochemical titration of brain enzyme activity with antiretinal GS antibodies also revealed an immunological homology between retinal and brain enzymes [16].


  1. The cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for an amplified glutamine synthetase gene from the Chinese hamster. Hayward, B.E., Hussain, A., Wilson, R.H., Lyons, A., Woodcock, V., McIntosh, B., Harris, T.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. On the mechanism of the inhibition of glutamine synthetase and creatine phosphokinase by methionine sulfoxide. Haghighi, A.Z., Maples, K.R. J. Neurosci. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products. Refsgaard, H.H., Tsai, L., Stadtman, E.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Distribution of glutamine synthetase and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I in vertebrate liver. Smith, D.D., Campbell, J.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. The bovine glutamine synthase gene (GLUL) maps to 10q33 and a pseudogene (GLULP) to 16q21. Masabanda, J., Wigger, G., Eggen, A., Stranzinger, G., Fries, R. Mamm. Genome (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Antibodies against the bovine brain glutamate binding protein. Roy, S., Michaelis, E.K. J. Neurochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. The A2 adenosine receptor: guanine nucleotide modulation of agonist binding is enhanced by proteolysis. Nanoff, C., Jacobson, K.A., Stiles, G.L. Mol. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. The cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of aortic smooth muscle membrane proteins. Parks, T.P., Nairn, A.C., Greengard, P., Jamieson, J.D. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of adenosine analogues on ADP ribosylation of GS protein in coronary artery. Hussain, T., Mustafa, S.J. Am. J. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. ADP, chloride ion, and metal ion binding to bovine brain glutamine synthetase. Maurizi, M.R., Pinkofsky, H.B., Ginsburg, A. Biochemistry (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Oxidation of Neurospora crassa NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase by activated oxygen species. Aguirre, J., Rodríguez, R., Hansberg, W. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Modulation of calcineurin phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase activity by calmodulin and protease treatment. Kincaid, R.L., Martensen, T.M., Vaughan, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of glutamine synthetase and glutamic acid decarboxylase in crude extracts. Pahuja, S.L., Albert, J., Reid, T.W. J. Chromatogr. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Possible function of SP-22, a substrate of mitochondrial ATP-dependent protease, as a radical scavenger. Watabe, S., Hasegawa, H., Takimoto, K., Yamamoto, Y., Takahashi, S.Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Heterogeneity of a crude synaptosomal preparation, studied by affinity partitioning using hexaethonium-poly(ethylene glycol). Olde, B., Johansson, G. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Bovine retinal glutamine synthetase 1. Purification, characterization and immunological properties. Pahuja, S.L., Mullins, B.T., Reid, T.W. Exp. Eye Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
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