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Gene Review

Glul  -  glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: GS, Glns, Glutamate decarboxylase, Glutamate--ammonia ligase, Glutamine synthetase
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Disease relevance of Glul


Psychiatry related information on Glul

  • The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of antibodies directed against alpha subunits of Gi, Gx/z, GO and GS regulatory proteins on morphine dependence was analyzed in mice [6].

High impact information on Glul


Chemical compound and disease context of Glul


Biological context of Glul

  • On confluent differentiated cells LPS induced an inhibition of cell proliferation which was associated with a down-regulation of GFAP-mRNA, GS-mRNA and GS expressions and with a transitory increase in IL-1 beta mRNA expression [12].
  • In addition, enzyme activity assays demonstrated that oxidation was associated with decreased GS activity, while the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was unchanged in spite of an up-regulation of LDH2 levels [13].
  • The decrease of GS mRNA in the spf/Y mice from 28 to 112 days of age (3.72 +/- 0.25 vs 1.68 +/- 0.32, p < 0.01) suggests translational and post-translational modifications in the regulation of GS activity [3].
  • It lacks introns, it contains a short poly(A) tract at its 3' end; it is flanked by 10-base pair (bp) direct repeats; and it corresponds closely at its 5' end to the transcription start site of the intron-containing GS gene (GSi) (Kuo, C. F. & Darnell, J. E., Jr. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 208, 45-56) [14].
  • We conclude that the intronless murine GS gene isolated from 3T3-L1 cells arose as a retroposon that was inserted into the genome downstream of a potentially active promoter [14].

Anatomical context of Glul


Associations of Glul with chemical compounds

  • Furthermore, there was an increase in the hepatic ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) capacity, with significant increases in the activities of CPS III (3.8-fold), argininosuccinate synthetase + lyase (1.8-fold) and, more importantly, glutamine synthetase (2.2-fold) [19].
  • We observed that GS increased during brain maturation in vivo and in vitro, and that addition of hydrocortisone (1 microM, 48 h) to the culture medium induced varying GS activity depending on the developmental stage and the area [20].
  • They do not contain GS as do glial cells involved in GABA metabolism, and when they contain protein S100 (rabbit, mouse), its rate is low in comparison to classical glial or ependymal cells [21].
  • Complementary expression of glutamine synthetase and carbamoylphosphate synthetase I in ornithine carbamoyltransferase-deficient mouse liver (spf-ash mouse) [22].
  • Baicalein treatment also downregulated tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFRp55) and upregulated noninducible nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and glutamine synthase (GS) [23].

Regulatory relationships of Glul


Other interactions of Glul


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Glul


  1. Astrocytosis in wobbler mouse spinal cord involves a population of astrocytes which is glutamine synthetase-negative. Blondet, B., Hantaz-Ambroise, D., Aït-Ikhlef, A., Cambier, D., Murawsky, M., Rieger, F. Neurosci. Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Astrocyte gene expression in experimental mouse scrapie. Lazarini, F., Boussin, F., Deslys, J.P., Tardy, M., Dormont, D. J. Comp. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Developmental study of hepatic glutamine synthetase in a mouse model of congenital hyperammonemia. Skarpetas, A., Mawal, Y., Qureshi, I.A. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Production and secretion in CHO cells of the extracellular domain of AMOG/beta 2, a type-II membrane protein. Gloor, S., Nasse, K., Essen, L.O., Appel, F. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Phosphorylation of protein kinase Cdelta on distinct tyrosine residues regulates specific cellular functions. Kronfeld, I., Kazimirsky, G., Lorenzo, P.S., Garfield, S.H., Blumberg, P.M., Brodie, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Antibodies directed against alpha subunits of Gi, Gx/z, GO and GS transducer proteins reduced the morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. Sánchez-Blázquez, P., Garzón, J. Life Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to GS protein alpha-subunit sequence accelerate differentiation of fibroblasts to adipocytes. Wang, H.Y., Watkins, D.C., Malbon, C.C. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Thyroid hormone action in the absence of thyroid hormone receptor DNA-binding in vivo. Shibusawa, N., Hashimoto, K., Nikrodhanond, A.A., Liberman, M.C., Applebury, M.L., Liao, X.H., Robbins, J.T., Refetoff, S., Cohen, R.N., Wondisford, F.E. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on murine astrocyte glutamine synthetase activity. Implications in neuronal injury. Chao, C.C., Hu, S., Tsang, M., Weatherbee, J., Molitor, T.W., Anderson, W.R., Peterson, P.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Free radical oxidation of brain proteins in accelerated senescence and its modulation by N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone. Butterfield, D.A., Howard, B.J., Yatin, S., Allen, K.L., Carney, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Protection Elicited by Two Glutamine Auxotrophs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and In Vivo Growth Phenotypes of the Four Unique Glutamine Synthetase Mutants in a Murine Model. Lee, S., Jeon, B.Y., Bardarov, S., Chen, M., Morris, S.L., Jacobs, W.R. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), up-regulate the IL-1-mRNA and down-regulate the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamine synthetase (GS)-mRNAs in astroglial primary cultures. Letournel-Boulland, M.L., Fages, C., Rolland, B., Tardy, M. Eur. Cytokine Netw. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Quantitative proteomics analysis of differential protein expression and oxidative modification of specific proteins in the brains of old mice. Poon, H.F., Vaishnav, R.A., Getchell, T.V., Getchell, M.L., Butterfield, D.A. Neurobiol. Aging (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. A functional promoter flanks an intronless glutamine synthetase gene. Bhandari, B., Roesler, W.J., DeLisio, K.D., Klemm, D.J., Ross, N.S., Miller, R.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification by microarray analysis of aspartate aminotransferase and glutamine synthetase as glucocorticoid target genes in a mouse Schwann cell line. Grenier, J., Tomkiewicz, C., Trousson, A., Rajkowski, K.M., Schumacher, M., Massaad, C. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Ornithine-urea cycle and urea synthesis in African lungfishes, Protopterus aethiopicus and Protopterus annectens, exposed to terrestrial conditions for six days. Loong, A.M., Hiong, K.C., Lee, S.M., Wong, W.P., Chew, S.F., Ip, Y.K. J. Exp. Zoolog. Part A Comp. Exp. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparative biochemical, morphological, and immunocytochemical studies between C-6 glial cells of early and late passages and advanced passages of glial cells derived from aged mouse cerebral hemispheres. Lee, K., Kentroti, S., Billie, H., Bruce, C., Vernadakis, A. Glia (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Localization of glial cell antigens in the brains of young normal mice and the dysmyelinating mutant mice, jimpy and shiverer. Cammer, W., Tansey, F.A. J. Neurosci. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Urea synthesis in the African lungfish Protopterus dolloi--hepatic carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III and glutamine synthetase are upregulated by 6 days of aerial exposure. Chew, S.F., Ong, T.F., Ho, L., Tam, W.L., Loong, A.M., Hiong, K.C., Wong, W.P., Ip, Y.K. J. Exp. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Glutamine synthetase: a marker of an astroglial subpopulation in primary cultures of defined brain areas. Fages, C., Khelil, M., Rolland, B., Bridoux, A.M., Tardy, M. Dev. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparative marker analysis of the ependymocytes of the subcommissural organ in four different mammalian species. Chouaf, L., Didier-Bazes, M., Aguera, M., Tardy, M., Sallanon, M., Kitahama, K., Belin, M.F. Cell Tissue Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Complementary expression of glutamine synthetase and carbamoylphosphate synthetase I in ornithine carbamoyltransferase-deficient mouse liver (spf-ash mouse). Shiojiri, N., Ohta, T., Ogawa, K., Gebhardt, R. Histochem. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of Neuroprotective Drugs on Gene Expression in G93A/SOD1 Mice. Ignacio, S., Moore, D.H., Smith, A.P., Lee, N.M. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Developmental expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase mRNAs in normal and jimpy mice. Li, X.S., Bartlett, W.P. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Reduction and expansion of the glutamine synthetase expressing zone in livers from tetracycline controlled TGF-beta1 transgenic mice and multiple starved mice. Ueberham, E., Arendt, E., Starke, M., Bittner, R., Gebhardt, R. J. Hepatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Cellular heterogeneity in primary cultures of brain cells revealed by immunocytochemical localization of glutamine synthetase. Hallermayer, K., Hamprecht, B. Brain Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha suppress dexamethasone induction of glutamine synthetase in primary mouse astrocytes. Huang, T.L., O'Banion, M.K. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Thyroid hormones influence the astroglial plasticity: changes in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and of its encoding message. Andres-Barquin, P.J., Fages, C., Le Prince, G., Rolland, B., Tardy, M. Neurochem. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Astrogliosis is delayed in type 1 interleukin-1 receptor-null mice following a penetrating brain injury. Lin, H.W., Basu, A., Druckman, C., Cicchese, M., Krady, J.K., Levison, S.W. Journal of neuroinflammation [electronic resource]. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Evidence of increased oxidative stress in hippocampal primary cultures of trisomy 16 mouse. Studies on metallothionein-I/II. Hanbauer, I., Galdzicki, Z., Rapoport, S.I., Scortegagna, M. Restorative neurology and neuroscience. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Murine glutamine synthetase: cloning, developmental regulation, and glucocorticoid inducibility. Magnuson, S.R., Young, A.P. Dev. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Role of the 5' enhancer of the glutamine synthetase gene in its organ-specific expression. Lie-Venema, H., de Boer, P.A., Moorman, A.F., Lamers, W.H. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Heterogeneous hepatocellular expression of glutamine synthetase in developing mouse liver and in testicular transplants of fetal liver. Shiojiri, N., Wada, J.I., Tanaka, T., Noguchi, M., Ito, M., Gebhardt, R. Lab. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Early detection of mouse wobbler mutation: a model of pathological motoneurone death. des Portes, V., Coulpier, M., Melki, J., Dreyfus, P.A. Neuroreport (1994) [Pubmed]
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