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Gene Review

GLUL  -  glutamate-ammonia ligase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GLNS, GS, Glutamate decarboxylase, Glutamate--ammonia ligase, Glutamine synthetase, ...
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Disease relevance of GLUL


Psychiatry related information on GLUL


High impact information on GLUL


Chemical compound and disease context of GLUL


Biological context of GLUL


Anatomical context of GLUL


Associations of GLUL with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of GLUL


Other interactions of GLUL


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GLUL


  1. Overexpression of glutamine synthetase in human primary liver cancer. Christa, L., Simon, M.T., Flinois, J.P., Gebhardt, R., Brechot, C., Lasserre, C. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Glutamine synthetase in cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and brain: a diagnostic marker for Alzheimer disease? Tumani, H., Shen, G., Peter, J.B., Brück, W. Arch. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. An inhibitor of exported Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase selectively blocks the growth of pathogenic mycobacteria in axenic culture and in human monocytes: extracellular proteins as potential novel drug targets. Harth, G., Horwitz, M.A. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Differences in mRNA levels in Anabaena living freely or in symbiotic association with Azolla. Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A., Haselkorn, R. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase in subregions of prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorder. Toro, C.T., Hallak, J.E., Dunham, J.S., Deakin, J.F. Neurosci. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Withdrawal from free-choice ethanol consumption results in increased packing density of glutamine synthetase-immunoreactive astrocytes in the prelimbic cortex of alcohol-preferring rats. Miguel-Hidalgo, J.J. Alcohol Alcohol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Physiological functions of glucocorticoids in stress and their relation to pharmacological actions. Munck, A., Guyre, P.M., Holbrook, N.J. Endocr. Rev. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Loss of glutamine synthetase activity in the brain in Huntington's disease. Carter, C.J. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Oxidatively induced structural alteration of glutamine synthetase assessed by analysis of spin label incorporation kinetics: relevance to Alzheimer's disease. Butterfield, D.A., Hensley, K., Cole, P., Subramaniam, R., Aksenov, M., Aksenova, M., Bummer, P.M., Haley, B.E., Carney, J.M. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of an imprinted U2af binding protein related sequence on mouse chromosome 11 using the RLGS method. Hayashizaki, Y., Shibata, H., Hirotsune, S., Sugino, H., Okazaki, Y., Sasaki, N., Hirose, K., Imoto, H., Okuizumi, H., Muramatsu, M. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Glutamine synthetase: assimilatory role in liver as related to urea retention in marine chondrichthyes. Webb, J.T., Brown, G.W. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Streamlined regulation and gene loss as adaptive mechanisms in Prochlorococcus for optimized nitrogen utilization in oligotrophic environments. García-Fernández, J.M., de Marsac, N.T., Diez, J. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Glutamine, glutamine synthetase and Huntington's disease. Carter, C.J. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Glutamine synthetase protects against neuronal degeneration in injured retinal tissue. Gorovits, R., Avidan, N., Avisar, N., Shaked, I., Vardimon, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Oxidative damage to brain proteins, loss of glutamine synthetase activity, and production of free radicals during ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury to gerbil brain. Oliver, C.N., Starke-Reed, P.E., Stadtman, E.R., Liu, G.J., Carney, J.M., Floyd, R.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Nitric oxide signaling gone awry: nitration of glutamine synthetase and hyperammonemia in sepsis. Landar, A., Darley-Usmar, V.M. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of glutamine synthetase by dexamethasone in hepatoma tissue culture cells. Crook, R.B., Louie, M., Deuel, T.F., Tomkins, G.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Chromosomal mapping of a family of human glutamine synthetase genes: functional gene (GLUL) on 1q25, pseudogene (GLULP) on 9p13, and three related genes (GLULL1, GLULL2, GLULL3) on 5q33, 11p15, and 11q24. Wang, Y., Kudoh, J., Kubota, R., Asakawa, S., Minoshima, S., Shimizu, N. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Localization of the L-glutamine synthetase gene to chromosome 1q23. Clancy, K.P., Berger, R., Cox, M., Bleskan, J., Walton, K.A., Hart, I., Patterson, D. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Glutamine metabolism and signaling in the liver. H??ussinger, D., Schliess, F. Front. Biosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Unchanged glutamine synthetase activity and increased NMDA receptor density in epileptic human neocortex: implications for the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Steffens, M., Huppertz, H.J., Zentner, J., Chauzit, E., Feuerstein, T.J. Neurochem. Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of glutamine synthetase in macrophages. Bode, J.G., Peters-Regehr, T., Kubitz, R., Häussinger, D. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Glutamine synthetase isolated from human brain: octameric structure and homology of partial primary structure with human liver glutamine synthetase. Boksha, I.S., Schönfeld, H.J., Langen, H., Müller, F., Tereshkina, E.B., Burbaeva, G.S.h. Biochemistry Mosc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Ammonia-induced alteration in S100B secretion in astrocytes is not reverted by creatine addition. Leite, M.C., Brolese, G., de Almeida, L.M., Piñero, C.C., Gottfried, C., Gonçalves, C.A. Brain Res. Bull. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Reactive changes of retinal astrocytes and Müller glial cells in kainate-induced neuroexcitotoxicity. Chang, M.L., Wu, C.H., Jiang-Shieh, Y.F., Shieh, J.Y., Wen, C.Y. J. Anat. (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. Cell to cell contacts control the transcription activity of the glucocorticoid receptor. Reisfeld, S., Vardimon, L. Mol. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha synergistically mediate neurotoxicity: involvement of nitric oxide and of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Chao, C.C., Hu, S., Ehrlich, L., Peterson, P.K. Brain Behav. Immun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. 15N-NMR study of ammonium assimilation in Agaricus bisporus. Baars, J.J., Op den Camp, H.J., van der Drift, C., Joordens, J.J., Wijmenga, S.S., van Griensven, L.J., Vogels, G.D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Reduced glutamine synthetase in hippocampal areas with neuron loss in temporal lobe epilepsy. van der Hel, W.S., Notenboom, R.G., Bos, I.W., van Rijen, P.C., van Veelen, C.W., de Graan, P.N. Neurology (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Redox proteomics identification of oxidatively modified hippocampal proteins in mild cognitive impairment: Insights into the development of Alzheimer's disease. Butterfield, D.A., Poon, H.F., St Clair, D., Keller, J.N., Pierce, W.M., Klein, J.B., Markesbery, W.R. Neurobiol. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on the small bowel of septic rats. Ardawi, M.S. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Identification of 4-hydroxynonenal-modified retinal proteins induced by photooxidative stress prior to retinal degeneration. Tanito, M., Haniu, H., Elliott, M.H., Singh, A.K., Matsumoto, H., Anderson, R.E. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
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