The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

tld  -  tolloid

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG6868, CT21278, Dmel\CG6868, Dorsal-ventral patterning protein tolloid, TLD, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

High impact information on tld


Biological context of tld

  • Loss of function mutations have been reported in the tld gene that result in amino acid substitutions at E835K (in CUB4), S915L (in CUB5), and N760I (in EGF2) in TLD [5].
  • We also find that most tolloid alleles that do not interact with dpp are missense mutations in the C-terminal EGF and C1r/s repeats, or encode truncated proteins that delete these repeats [6].
  • Some tolloid alleles act as dominant enhancers of dpp in a trans heterozygote, and are therefore antimorphic alleles [6].
  • We propose that tld and tlr-1 arose by gene duplication and that each has evolved independently to acquire distinct tissue specific roles in Drosophila development [7].
  • We discuss a comparison of the DNA sequences from the zen and tld promoters and the possible mechanisms of transcriptional silencing [8].

Anatomical context of tld

  • In larval stages, both genes are expressed in identical patterns in imaginal discs and in the optic lobes of the brain, but tlr-1 is more abundant than tld [7].
  • Screens for genetic interactions in the zygote have identified an allele of tolloid, as well as two novel alleles of screw, a gene recently shown to encode another bone morphogenetic protein-like polypeptide [9].

Associations of tld with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of tld

  • The Drosophila tolloid gene has been shown to genetically interact with dpp [11].

Enzymatic interactions of tld


Other interactions of tld

  • We propose that the specific catalytic properties of Tlr and Tld have evolved to achieve the proper balance between the inhibitory and positive activities of Sog in the PCV and early embryo, respectively [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of tld

  • In situ hybridization experiments show that tlr-1 expression partially overlaps tld expression in early embryos, but shows unique transcriptional patterns in late stage embryos that are not seen with tld [7].
  • Sequence analysis indicates that tlr-1 has a large N-terminal extension relative to tld, but otherwise shows the same general organization of sequence motifs found in tld and other BMP-1 family members [7].


  1. The Drosophila dorsal-ventral patterning gene tolloid is related to human bone morphogenetic protein 1. Shimell, M.J., Ferguson, E.L., Childs, S.R., O'Connor, M.B. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Brinker is a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor in the Drosophila embryo. Zhang, H., Levine, M., Ashe, H.L. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. The Drosophila gene abnormal spindle encodes a novel microtubule-associated protein that associates with the polar regions of the mitotic spindle. Saunders, R.D., Avides, M.C., Howard, T., Gonzalez, C., Glover, D.M. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. hch-1, a gene required for normal hatching and normal migration of a neuroblast in C. elegans, encodes a protein related to TOLLOID and BMP-1. Hishida, R., Ishihara, T., Kondo, K., Katsura, I. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. A complete domain structure of Drosophila tolloid is required for cleavage of short gastrulation. Canty, E.G., Garrigue-Antar, L., Kadler, K.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Mutational analysis of the Drosophila tolloid gene, a human BMP-1 homolog. Finelli, A.L., Bossie, C.A., Xie, T., Padgett, R.W. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of tolloid-related-1: a BMP-1-like product that is required during larval and pupal stages of Drosophila development. Nguyen, T., Jamal, J., Shimell, M.J., Arora, K., O'Connor, M.B. Dev. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. The Drosophila dorsal morphogen represses the tolloid gene by interacting with a silencer element. Kirov, N., Childs, S., O'Connor, M., Rushlow, C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic screens to identify elements of the decapentaplegic signaling pathway in Drosophila. Raftery, L.A., Twombly, V., Wharton, K., Gelbart, W.M. Genetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. A developmental gene (Tolloid/BMP-1) is regulated in Aplysia neurons by treatments that induce long-term sensitization. Liu, Q.R., Hattar, S., Endo, S., MacPhee, K., Zhang, H., Cleary, L.J., Byrne, J.H., Eskin, A. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. The tolkin gene is a tolloid/BMP-1 homologue that is essential for Drosophila development. Finelli, A.L., Xie, T., Bossie, C.A., Blackman, R.K., Padgett, R.W. Genetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Holy Tolloido: Tolloid cleaves SOG/Chordin to free DPP/BMPs. Mullins, M.C. Trends Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Matching catalytic activity to developmental function: tolloid-related processes Sog in order to help specify the posterior crossvein in the Drosophila wing. Serpe, M., Ralston, A., Blair, S.S., O'Connor, M.B. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities