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Gene Review

wts  -  warts

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG12072, Dlats, Dmel\CG12072, LATS, LATS1, ...
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Disease relevance of wts


High impact information on wts

  • The tumor suppressors Merlin, expanded, hippo, salvador and mob as tumor suppressor also share multiple Fat pathway phenotypes but regulate Warts activity independently [2].
  • Thus, Yki is a critical target of the Wts/Lats protein kinase and a potential oncogene [3].
  • In Drosophila, these two processes are regulated by a pathway involving the Ste20-like kinase Hippo (Hpo) and the NDR family kinase Warts (Wts; also called Lats) [3].
  • Recent studies have identified the Large tumor suppressor (Lats)/Warts (Wts) protein kinase as a key component of a pathway that controls the coordination between cell proliferation and apoptosis [4].
  • The growth regulators warts/lats and melted interact in a bistable loop to specify opposite fates in Drosophila R8 photoreceptors [5].

Biological context of wts

  • However, the mechanisms by which sav and wts regulate growth and apoptosis are not well understood [6].
  • Because of the excess growth and abnormalities of differentiation that follow homozygous loss, we consider wts to be a tumor suppressor gene [1].
  • One wts allele allows survival of homozygotes to the late larval stage, and these larvae show extensive imaginal disc overgrowth [1].
  • The wts gene is defined by the breakpoints of overlapping deficiencies in the right telomeric region of chromosome 3, region 100A, and by lethal P-element insertions and excisions [1].
  • Animals having mutations in both dcsk and lats display cell overproliferation phenotypes more severe than either mutant alone, demonstrating these genes function together in vivo to regulate cell numbers [7].

Anatomical context of wts

  • Therefore, we suggest a potential in vivo mechanism of LATS1 activation through rapid recruitment to the plasma membrane by hMOB1 followed by multi-site phosphorylation, thereby providing insight into the molecular regulation of the LATS tumour suppressor [8].

Associations of wts with chemical compounds

  • Two genes that function together to regulate growth, proliferation, and apoptosis in Drosophila are warts (wts), encoding a serine/threonine kinase, and salvador (sav), encoding a WW domain containing Wts-interacting protein [6].
  • Based on staining with PY and DIg antibodies, the apico-lateral junctional complexes appeared normal in tissue from the hyperplastic overgrowth mutants fat, dco, gd and wts [9].
  • The LATS family of serine/threonine kinases control tissue size by regulating cell proliferation and function as tumor suppressor genes in both Drosophila and mammals [7].
  • Finally, we show that dCSK phosphorylates LATS in vitro at a conserved C-terminal tyrosine residue, which is critical for normal LATS function in vivo [7].

Regulatory relationships of wts

  • Fat modulates Salvador/Warts/Hippo pathway activity by promoting abundance and localization of Expanded protein at the apical membrane of epithelial tissues [10].

Other interactions of wts


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of wts


  1. The Drosophila tumor suppressor gene warts encodes a homolog of human myotonic dystrophy kinase and is required for the control of cell shape and proliferation. Justice, R.W., Zilian, O., Woods, D.F., Noll, M., Bryant, P.J. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Delineation of a Fat tumor suppressor pathway. Cho, E., Feng, Y., Rauskolb, C., Maitra, S., Fehon, R., Irvine, K.D. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. The Hippo signaling pathway coordinately regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis by inactivating Yorkie, the Drosophila Homolog of YAP. Huang, J., Wu, S., Barrera, J., Matthews, K., Pan, D. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Control of cell proliferation and apoptosis by mob as tumor suppressor, mats. Lai, Z.C., Wei, X., Shimizu, T., Ramos, E., Rohrbaugh, M., Nikolaidis, N., Ho, L.L., Li, Y. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. The growth regulators warts/lats and melted interact in a bistable loop to specify opposite fates in Drosophila R8 photoreceptors. Mikeladze-Dvali, T., Wernet, M.F., Pistillo, D., Mazzoni, E.O., Teleman, A.A., Chen, Y.W., Cohen, S., Desplan, C. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The Drosophila Mst ortholog, hippo, restricts growth and cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis. Harvey, K.F., Pfleger, C.M., Hariharan, I.K. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. A genetic screen for modifiers of the lats tumor suppressor gene identifies C-terminal Src kinase as a regulator of cell proliferation in Drosophila. Stewart, R.A., Li, D.M., Huang, H., Xu, T. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. The human tumour suppressor LATS1 is activated by human MOB1 at the membrane. Hergovich, A., Schmitz, D., Hemmings, B.A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Localization of proteins to the apico-lateral junctions of Drosophila epithelia. Woods, D.F., Wu, J.W., Bryant, P.J. Dev. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Fat Cadherin Modulates Organ Size in Drosophila via the Salvador/Warts/Hippo Signaling Pathway. Bennett, F.C., Harvey, K.F. Curr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The Drosophila tumor suppressors Expanded and Merlin differentially regulate cell cycle exit, apoptosis, and Wingless signaling. Pellock, B.J., Buff, E., White, K., Hariharan, I.K. Dev. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
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