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Gene Review

nkd  -  naked cuticle

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG11614, CG18224, Dmel\CG11614, Nkd, Protein naked cuticle, ...
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Disease relevance of nkd

  • In both nkd and germ line clone-derived zw3 embryos the pattern elements derived from the anterior-most part of each segment, the denticle belts, are deleted [1].

High impact information on nkd

  • Few, if any, clones were found in the posterior-most regions of the naked cuticle, and none were found in the posterior compartments of the thorax [2].
  • In fly embryos and imaginal discs nkd transcription is induced by Wg [3].
  • Signal-inducible feedback antagonists such as nkd may limit the effects of Wnt proteins in development and disease [3].
  • In the Drosophila embryo, the ventral epidermis consists of the segmental alternance of two major cell types that produce either naked cuticle or cytoplasmic extrusions known as denticles [4].
  • Embryos derived from germ lines that are homozygous for zw3 mutations (zw3 embryos) have phenotypes similar to embryos that are mutant for the segment-polarity gene naked (nkd) [5].

Biological context of nkd


Anatomical context of nkd


Associations of nkd with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of nkd

  • Yeast two hybrid and in vitro experiments indicate that Nkd directly binds to the basic-PDZ region of Dsh [12].

Regulatory relationships of nkd


Other interactions of nkd


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of nkd

  • EFX corresponds to a minimal domain required for fly or vertebrate Nkd to interact with the basic/PDZ domains of fly Dsh or vertebrate Dvl proteins in the yeast two-hybrid assay [16].


  1. Multiple functions of a Drosophila homeotic gene, zeste-white 3, during segmentation and neurogenesis. Perrimon, N., Smouse, D. Dev. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Autonomous requirements for the segment polarity gene armadillo during Drosophila embryogenesis. Wieschaus, E., Riggleman, R. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. naked cuticle encodes an inducible antagonist of Wnt signalling. Zeng, W., Wharton, K.A., Mack, J.A., Wang, K., Gadbaw, M., Suyama, K., Klein, P.S., Scott, M.P. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. ovo/svb integrates Wingless and DER pathways to control epidermis differentiation. Payre, F., Vincent, A., Carreno, S. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Putative protein kinase product of the Drosophila segment-polarity gene zeste-white3. Siegfried, E., Perkins, L.A., Capaci, T.M., Perrimon, N. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. An unconventional nuclear localization motif is crucial for function of the Drosophila wnt/wingless antagonist naked cuticle. Waldrop, S., Chan, C.C., Cagatay, T., Zhang, S., Rousset, R., Mack, J., Zeng, W., Fish, M., Zhang, M., Amanai, M., Wharton, K.A. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Components of wingless signalling in Drosophila. Siegfried, E., Wilder, E.L., Perrimon, N. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. oroshigane, a new segment polarity gene of Drosophila melanogaster, functions in hedgehog signal transduction. Epps, J.L., Jones, J.B., Tanda, S. Genetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Ectopic expression of either the Drosophila gooseberry-distal or proximal gene causes alterations of cell fate in the epidermis and central nervous system. Zhang, Y., Ungar, A., Fresquez, C., Holmgren, R. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Wingless effects mesoderm patterning and ectoderm segmentation events via induction of its downstream target sloppy paired. Lee, H.H., Frasch, M. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Zinc-dependent interaction between dishevelled and the Drosophila Wnt antagonist naked cuticle. Rousset, R., Wharton, K.A., Zimmermann, G., Scott, M.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Naked cuticle targets dishevelled to antagonize Wnt signal transduction. Rousset, R., Mack, J.A., Wharton, K.A., Axelrod, J.D., Cadigan, K.M., Fish, M.P., Nusse, R., Scott, M.P. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutations that alter the timing and pattern of cubitus interruptus gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Slusarski, D.C., Motzny, C.K., Holmgren, R. Genetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Non-equivalent roles of Drosophila Frizzled and Dfrizzled2 in embryonic wingless signal transduction. Moline, M.M., Dierick, H.A., Southern, C., Bejsovec, A. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Cubitus interruptus acts to specify naked cuticle in the trunk of Drosophila embryos. Angelats, C., Gallet, A., Thérond, P., Fasano, L., Kerridge, S. Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Vertebrate proteins related to Drosophila Naked Cuticle bind Dishevelled and antagonize Wnt signaling. Wharton, K.A., Zimmermann, G., Rousset, R., Scott, M.P. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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