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Gene Review

rap  -  retina aberrant in pattern

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: APC/C[Fzr/Cdh1], CDH1, CG3000, Cdh1, Cdh1/Fzr, ...
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High impact information on rap


Biological context of rap

  • Mutant clones of Fzr revealed that Fzr is dispensable for mitosis but essential for endocycles [4].
  • Only a combined reduction of Fzr and ectopic Stg expression prolongs mitotic cycles in follicle cells, suggesting that these two cell cycle regulators, Fzr and Stg, are important mediators of the Notch pathway in the mitotic-to-endocycle transition [4].
  • In addition, CdhFzr, an essential gene for endocycles, is sufficient to stop mitotic cycle and promote precocious endocycles when expressed prematurely during mitotic stages [5].
  • Notch activity leads to downregulation of String and Dacapo, and activation of Fzr [5].
  • Repression of String blocks the M-phase, activation of Fzr allows G1 progression and repression of Dacapo assures entry into the S-phase [5].

Regulatory relationships of rap


Other interactions of rap

  • Unlike in Notch clones, in Fzr mutant cells mitotic markers are absent past stage 6 [4].
  • APC activity is restricted to mitotic stages and G1 by its activators Cdc20-Fizzy (Cdc20(Fzy)) and Cdh1-Fizzy-related (Cdh1(Fzr)), respectively [7].
  • Interestingly, overexpression of Rap/Fzr in the eye primordia also increases the size of the antennal primordium resulting in the induction of ectopic antennae [8].
  • In addition, up-regulation of Fizzy-related is observed and is required for inhibition of Cdk1 activity [9].


  1. Drosophila fizzy-related down-regulates mitotic cyclins and is required for cell proliferation arrest and entry into endocycles. Sigrist, S.J., Lehner, C.F. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. A novel motif governs APC-dependent degradation of Drosophila ORC1 in vivo. Araki, M., Yu, H., Asano, M. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The roles of Fzy/Cdc20 and Fzr/Cdh1 in regulating the destruction of cyclin B in space and time. Raff, J.W., Jeffers, K., Huang, J.Y. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Notch-dependent Fizzy-related/Hec1/Cdh1 expression is required for the mitotic-to-endocycle transition in Drosophila follicle cells. Schaeffer, V., Althauser, C., Shcherbata, H.R., Deng, W.M., Ruohola-Baker, H. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. The mitotic-to-endocycle switch in Drosophila follicle cells is executed by Notch-dependent regulation of G1/S, G2/M and M/G1 cell-cycle transitions. Shcherbata, H.R., Althauser, C., Findley, S.D., Ruohola-Baker, H. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Notch-dependent downregulation of the homeodomain gene cut is required for the mitotic cycle/endocycle switch and cell differentiation in Drosophila follicle cells. Sun, J., Deng, W.M. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Rca1 inhibits APC-Cdh1(Fzr) and is required to prevent cyclin degradation in G2. Grosskortenhaus, R., Sprenger, F. Dev. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. rap gene encodes Fizzy-related protein (Fzr) and regulates cell proliferation and pattern formation in the developing Drosophila eye-antennal disc. Pimentel, A.C., Venkatesh, T.R. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of the embryonic cell proliferation by Drosophila cyclin D and cyclin E complexes. Lehner, C.F., Jacobs, H.W., Sauer, K., Meyer, C.A. Novartis Found. Symp. (2001) [Pubmed]
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