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SERPINB2  -  serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B...

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Disease relevance of PAI2

  • Different Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and LPS-derivatives were studied for their ability to induce the production of procoagulant activity (PCA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) by human blood mononuclear leukocytes [1].

High impact information on PAI2

  • Failure of monocytes to accumulate PAI-2 did not reflect leakage due to cell death, as assessed by LDH in culture supernatants [2].
  • Smooth (S)- and rough (R)-form LPSs caused a similar increase in cell-associated PCA (tissue factor) and PAI-2 antigen release [1].
  • The endotoxin-induced PAI from both cell types was not immunoprecipitated by incubation with IgG directed against the endothelial-type inhibitor, PAI-1, or antiserum directed against the placental-type inhibitor, PAI-2 [3].
  • Partial amino acid sequencing of the purified B-43 showed that this protein was homologous to glia-derived nexin/protease nexin-1 (GDN/PN-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor 2, leukocyte elastase inhibitor (LEI) and placental thrombin inhibitor (PTI) among the serpins [4].
  • Embryonic PA activity was suppressed (P < .05) by PAI-2, whereas exposure to ouabain did not affect (P > .05) PA activity [5].

Biological context of PAI2

  • Bovine mammary epithelial (BME-UV1, clone E-T and BME-UV, clone E-T2) and myoepithelial (BMM-UV, clone m-T2) cell lines were used to study the modulation of cell-associated activity of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), as well as mRNA transcripts of u-PA, its receptor (u-PAR), and inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2) during the cell cycle [6].
  • Both PAI-1 and PAI-2 mRNAs were upregulated markedly after the gonadotrophin surge, with the highest expression observed in follicles collected at about the time of ovulation (24 h) and in corpora lutea (48 h) [7].
  • A pattern of PAI-2 response in HGF after LPS stimulation was detected with a quick up-regulation of the PAI-2 mRNA, which was down regulated when extracellular PAI-2 (60kDa mass) levels reached plateau levels [8].

Anatomical context of PAI2

  • These findings suggest that the induction of monocyte tissue factor and PAI-2 by H. pylori LPS is influenced by the lipid A structure and modulated by the core oligosaccharide and that phosphate groups present in both regions may play an important role [1].
  • RESULTS: The results showed that the distribution of PAI-2 synthesised by human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was mostly as an intracellular protein (47kDa) [8].
  • In contrast, PAI-2 mRNA was localized specifically to the granulosa cell layer [7].

Associations of PAI2 with chemical compounds

  • The aim of the present study was to investigate how serum factors, might modulate the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin-1beta on PAI-2 production by human gingival fibroblasts [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PAI2


  1. Effect of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS derivatives on the production of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 by human blood mononuclear cells. Semeraro, N., Montemurro, P., Piccoli, C., Muolo, V., Colucci, M., Giuliani, G., Fumarola, D., Pece, S., Moran, A.P. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. The distribution of the secreted and intracellular forms of plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2) in human peripheral blood monocytes is modulated by serum. Ritchie, H., Booth, N.A. Thromb. Haemost. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Endotoxin-induced secretion of an active plasminogen activator inhibitor from bovine pulmonary arterial and aortic endothelial cells. Crutchley, D.J., Conanan, L.B., Ryan, U.S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Purification of a novel serpin-like protein from bovine brain. Nishibori, M., Chikai, T., Kawabata, M., Ohta, J., Ubuka, T., Saeki, K. Neurosci. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of blastocoelic expansion and plasminogen activator activity on hatching and zona pellucida solubility in bovine embryos in vitro. Coates, A.A., Menino, A.R. J. Anim. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Cell cycle-dependent fluctuation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, its receptor, and inhibitors in cultured bovine mammary epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Zavizion, B., White, J.H., Bramley, A.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Gonadotrophin surge-induced upregulation of mRNA for plasminogen activator inhibitors 1 and 2 within bovine periovulatory follicular and luteal tissue. Dow, M.P., Bakke, L.J., Cassar, C.A., Peters, M.W., Pursley, J.R., Smith, G.W. Reproduction (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Modulating effect of serum on the stimulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 production in human gingival fibroblasts by lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1beta. Xiao, Y., Bartold, P.M. Journal of the International Academy of Periodontology. (2004) [Pubmed]
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