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Gene Review

SON  -  SON DNA binding protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BASS1, Bax antagonist selected in saccharomyces 1, C21orf50, DBP-5, DBP5, ...
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Disease relevance of SON

  • Transcription repression of human hepatitis B virus genes by negative regulatory element-binding protein/SON [1].
  • The endogenous NREBP protein is localized in the nucleus of human hepatoma HuH-7 cells [1].
  • Overexpression of NREBP can also repress the transcription of HBV genes and the production of HBV virions in a transient transfection system that mimics the viral infection in vivo [1].
  • In this study, a yeast one-hybrid screen for proteins that associate with the NRE led to the identification of the leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF), a transcriptional repressor that contains a POZ (poxvirus zinc finger) domain, as an NRE-binding protein [2].
  • These results suggested that the NREBP may mediate the NRE activity of the EICP0 promoter and may function in the coordinate expression of EHV-1 genes [3].

High impact information on SON

  • As properly processed mRNPs translocate through the pore, certain mRNP proteins are removed, probably through the enzymatic action of the DEAD-box helicase Dbp5, which binds to Nup159 and Gle1, components of the cytoplasmic filaments of the NPC [4].
  • Gle1 and the phosphoinositide IP6 activate Dbp5's ATPase activity in vitro and this could provide critical spatial regulation of Dbp5 activity in vivo [4].
  • Dbp5 is present mainly in the cytoplasm and is enriched at the cytoplasmic side of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), suggesting that it acts in the late part of mRNP export [5].
  • The DEAD box RNA helicase Dbp5 is essential for nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNA-protein (mRNP) complexes [5].
  • Here, we describe the identification and functional characterization of the NRE-binding protein, called NRF (NF-kappaB-repressing factor), which abolishes the transcriptional activity of the bordering NF-kappaB- binding sites by a distance-independent mechanism [6].

Biological context of SON

  • By polymerase chain reaction-assisted binding site selection assay, we determined that the consensus sequence for NREBP binding is GA(G/T)AN(C/G)(A/G)CC [1].
  • The genomic locus of the NREBP/SON gene is composed of 13 exons and 12 introns [1].
  • The phylogenetic conservation of DBP-5, the ubiquity of its expression, its nuclear localization, and its ability to bind DNA sequences, raise the possibility that DBP-5 may play a role in the organization of interphase chromatin and/or in transcriptional regulation [7].
  • To extend our cDNA project for accumulating basic information on unidentified human genes, we newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones from a set of size-fractionated human adult and fetal brain cDNA libraries, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA1019 to KIAA1118 [8].
  • Body weight and other measures of obesity showed a positive relationship with systolic blood pressure (SBP), but not with diastolic (K5) blood pressure (DBP5) [9].

Anatomical context of SON

  • Gel shift assays performed with mouse L-M, rabbit RK-13, and human HeLa cell nuclear extracts and gamma-(32)P-labeled wild-type and mutant NREs demonstrated that a ubiquitous nuclear protein(s) (NRE-binding protein, NREBP) binds specifically to a sequence (bp -193 to -183) in the NRE [3].

Other interactions of SON


  1. Transcription repression of human hepatitis B virus genes by negative regulatory element-binding protein/SON. Sun, C.T., Lo, W.Y., Wang, I.H., Lo, Y.H., Shiou, S.R., Lai, C.K., Ting, L.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor, a POZ domain-containing transcriptional repressor, interacts with histone deacetylase-1 and inhibits cartilage oligomeric matrix protein gene expression and chondrogenesis. Liu, C.J., Prazak, L., Fajardo, M., Yu, S., Tyagi, N., Di Cesare, P.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. A negative regulatory element (base pairs -204 to -177) of the EICP0 promoter of equine herpesvirus 1 abolishes the EICP0 protein's trans-activation of its own promoter. Kim, S.K., Albrecht, R.A., O'Callaghan, D.J. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Transport of messenger RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Cole, C.N., Scarcelli, J.J. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. The mRNA export factor Dbp5 is associated with Balbiani ring mRNP from gene to cytoplasm. Zhao, J., Jin, S.B., Björkroth, B., Wieslander, L., Daneholt, B. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Constitutive silencing of IFN-beta promoter is mediated by NRF (NF-kappaB-repressing factor), a nuclear inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Nourbakhsh, M., Hauser, H. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. A cDNA clone for a novel nuclear protein with DNA binding activity. Mattioni, T., Hume, C.R., Konigorski, S., Hayes, P., Osterweil, Z., Lee, J.S. Chromosoma (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XIV. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. Kikuno, R., Nagase, T., Ishikawa, K., Hirosawa, M., Miyajima, N., Tanaka, A., Kotani, H., Nomura, N., Ohara, O. DNA Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Obesity, sodium intake, and blood pressure in adolescents. Ellison, R.C., Sosenko, J.M., Harper, G.P., Gibbons, L., Pratter, F.E., Miettinen, O.S. Hypertension (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. A negative regulatory element-dependent inhibitory role of ITF2B on IL-2 receptor alpha gene. Lu, Y., Sheng, D.Q., Mo, Z.C., Li, H.F., Wu, N.H., Shen, Y.F. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
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