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Gene Review

BAALC  -  brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Brain and acute leukemia cytoplasmic protein
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Disease relevance of BAALC


High impact information on BAALC

  • 2. We conclude that high BAALC expression predicts an adverse prognosis and may define an important risk factor in AML with normal cytogenetics [2].
  • BAALC expression predicts clinical outcome of de novo acute myeloid leukemia patients with normal cytogenetics: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study [2].
  • For high BAALC expressers the hazard ratio of an event for OS, EFS, and DFS was respectively 2.7, 2.6, and 2 [2].
  • We studied the prognostic impact of BAALC (Brain And Acute Leukemia, Cytoplasmic), a novel gene involved in leukemia, in 86 de novo AML patients with normal cytogenetics who were uniformly treated on Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9621 [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of CEBPA mutations, FLT3-ITD, and BAALC expression permits to split normal-karyotype AML into clinically distinct subgroups [3].

Biological context of BAALC


Anatomical context of BAALC

  • RESULTS: Expression analyses of FACSorted cells revealed high BAALC transcript levels in CD34(+) bone marrow cells including CD34(+)/CD38(-), CD34(+)/CD33(+), as well as CD34(+)/CD19(+)/CD10(+), CD34(+)/CD7(+), and CD34(+)/CD71(+)/CD45(-) cell fractions [4].
  • We postulate that BAALC represents a novel marker of an early progenitor cell common to the myeloid, lymphoid, and erythroid pathways [4].
  • BAALC, a novel marker of human hematopoietic progenitor cells [4].
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used real-time RT-PCR to show that BAALC is strongly expressed in CD34(+) cells from the bone marrow and blood and only weakly expressed in total normal bone marrow and blood cells [4].
  • Finally, we demonstrate in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells that BAALC overexpression regulates markers of osteoblast differentiation, including downregulating alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression while inducing osteopontin expression [5].

Other interactions of BAALC


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BAALC

  • Compared to low expressers, high BAALC expressers showed significantly inferior overall survival (OS; median, 1.7 vs 5.8 years, P =.02), event-free survival (EFS; median, 0.8 vs 4.9 years, P =.03), and disease-free survival (DFS; median, 1.4 vs 7.3 years, P =.03) [2].


  1. BAALC expression and FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutations in acute myeloid leukemia patients with normal cytogenetics: prognostic implications. Baldus, C.D., Thiede, C., Soucek, S., Bloomfield, C.D., Thiel, E., Ehninger, G. J. Clin. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. BAALC expression predicts clinical outcome of de novo acute myeloid leukemia patients with normal cytogenetics: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study. Baldus, C.D., Tanner, S.M., Ruppert, A.S., Whitman, S.P., Archer, K.J., Marcucci, G., Caligiuri, M.A., Carroll, A.J., Vardiman, J.W., Powell, B.L., Allen, S.L., Moore, J.O., Larson, R.A., Kolitz, J.E., de la Chapelle, A., Bloomfield, C.D. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Risk assessment in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and a normal karyotype. Bienz, M., Ludwig, M., Leibundgut, E.O., Mueller, B.U., Ratschiller, D., Solenthaler, M., Fey, M.F., Pabst, T. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. BAALC, a novel marker of human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Baldus, C.D., Tanner, S.M., Kusewitt, D.F., Liyanarachchi, S., Choi, C., Caligiuri, M.A., Bloomfield, C.D., de la Chapelle, A. Exp. Hematol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of a PTH regulated gene selectively induced in vivo during PTH-mediated bone formation. Robinson, J.A., Susulic, V., Liu, Y.B., Taylor, C., Hardenburg, J., Gironda, V., Zhao, W., Kharode, Y., McLarney, S., Bai, Y., Malone, D.P., Murrills, R., Bex, F. J. Cell. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
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