The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

EFS  -  embryonal Fyn-associated substrate

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CAS3, CASS3, Cas scaffolding protein family member 3, EFS1, EFS2, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of EFS

  • The impact of external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of stage 4 neuroblastoma patients of the NB97 trial was analyzed [1].
  • By combining the median expression ratio after consolidation therapy and the 75th percentile of the expression ratio at diagnosis, a new score was established that separates a group with 100% EFS from a significantly worse group (P <.0001) in each of the 3 acute myeloid leukemia subgroups [2].
  • The 46 IBC patients had a median OS of 3.8 years and EFS of 2.3 years, compared with 12.2 and 9.0 years, respectively, in stage IIIA breast cancer patients [3].
  • PURPOSE: To determine in a randomized comparison whether combination chemotherapy with high-dose cisplatin (HDPEB) improves the event-free (EFS) and overall (OS) survival of children and adolescents with high-risk malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) as compared with standard-dose cisplatin (PEB) and to compare the regimens' toxicity [4].
  • For beta-catenin nucleopositive and nucleonegative medulloblastomas, 5-year OS was 92.3% (95% CI, 82% to 100%) versus 65.3% (95% CI, 54.8 to 75.7%), and 5-year EFS was 88.9% (95% CI, 77% to 100%) versus 59.5% (95% CI, 48.8 to 70.2%), respectively [5].

Psychiatry related information on EFS

  • (2) EFS; The time to 50% residual rate of the before MS therapy group (80.5+/-16.2 min) was significantly slower than that of the after MS therapy patients (65.6+/-9.4 min) (P=0.0091) [6].

High impact information on EFS

  • The multi-disciplinary role of intermediate energy proton accelerators in pure and applied nuclear physics is discussed with particular reference to the experimental programmes at LAMPF (Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility) and SIN (Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, Zurich) [7].
  • Regulation of cell division: stop the SIN [8]!
  • In a Cox proportional-hazard model, the absence or presence of CD200 expression in MMCs is predictive for EFS for patients independently of ISS stage or beta2M serum levels [9].
  • Patients with CD200(absent) MMCs have an increased event-free survival (EFS; 24 months) compared with patients with CD200(present) MMCs (14 months), after high-dose therapy and stem cell transplantation [9].
  • Thalidomide improved 5-year EFS in patients lacking Amp1q21 but not in those with Amp1q21 (P = .004) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of EFS


Biological context of EFS

  • Here, we employed a dot far-Western blotting technique to evaluate the affinity and specificity of the binding by the SH3 domains of Efs and its related proteins [16].
  • Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of adult mouse tissue RNA indicated expression of Efs2 and of Efs1 in various tissues [17].
  • EFS and OS were inferior in patients with either partial or complete deletion of chromosome 13 or 11q abnormalities ("unfavorable" karyotype) when compared with the remaining patients (P < .001) who, as a group, had a similar prognosis irrespective of cytogenetic findings, ie, inevaluable, normal, or abnormal but without an "unfavorable" karyotype [18].
  • The patients with abnormalities of both chromosomes 11 and 13 had a dismal prognosis with median EFS and OS of only 11 and 12 months, respectively [18].
  • Patients presenting with a white blood cell (WBC) count lower than 5 x 10(9)/L and a platelet count higher than 20 x 10(9)/L at diagnosis (n = 22 [30.6%]) have an excellent prognosis with this regimen (EFS, OS, and DFS of 100%) [19].

Anatomical context of EFS

  • The EFS remained superior even when compared with non-DS children less than 2 years of age with a white blood cell count less than 10 x 100,000/microL (100% v 48% +/- 17.3%; P = .01) [20].
  • In gastric and ileocecal lymphoma, event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly higher as compared with the small intestine or MGI (median time of observation, 51 months) [21].
  • METHODS--Electrical field stimulation (EFS; 40 V, 0.5 ms, 0.5-32 Hz for 15 seconds) in human airways with or without epithelium was used to induce a cholinergic contraction (n = 5 in all experiments) [22].
  • Kaplan-Meier estimates of EFS and OS showed no differences with regard to gender, WBC, or presence of secondary chromosomal abnormalities, and there was no increase of EFS or OS among the 55 cases that had undergone bone marrow transplantation [23].
  • The inhibitory effect of UK 14.304 on contractions to EFS was of similar potency in control and inflamed ileum [24].

Associations of EFS with chemical compounds

  • (b) After DDCT, HER-2 and basal-like groups had significantly worse event-free survival [EFS; hazard ratio (HR), 3.6 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.65-8.18; P = 0.001] and HR, 3.7 (95% CI, 1.68-8.48; P < 0.0001), respectively] when compared with both luminal groups [25].
  • Capsaicin (10 micromol/l) increased both the resting and EFS-evoked overflow of beta-NAD+ [26].
  • The tissue superfusates collected during EFS also contained the beta-NAD+ metabolite ADPR (0.35 +/- 0.2 fmol/mg tissue) but not cyclic ADPR (cADPR) [26].
  • CONCLUSIONS--In human airways in vitro both frusemide and bumetanide produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the EFS-induced cholinergic contraction [22].
  • In AML-BFM 93, the introduction of idarubicin during first induction followed by intensification with HAM increased the 5-year EFS, DFS and OS to 50+/-2, 61+/-3 and 57+/-2%, respectively [27].

Regulatory relationships of EFS

  • Both VIP antagonists (10(-8) M) significantly enhances the contractions evoked by EFS without affecting the ACh sensitivity of smooth muscle cells [28].

Other interactions of EFS

  • Multivariate analysis identified EBRT as influential on EFS (hazard ratio 0.27) and OS (hazard ratio 0.17) in addition to MYCN amplification and presence of primary tumor site MIBG residual [1].
  • FLT3 mutations were significantly associated with a shorter EFS and survival (P<0.0001 and P=0.0002) owing to an excess of early events. c-Kit mutations were associated with a shorter EFS and RFS (P=0.002 and P=0.003) in t(8;21) but not inv(16) patients [29].
  • By contrast, rearrangement of ETV6 was found in 35 cases (21%) and was significantly associated with a better outcome (5-year EFS estimates: 87 +/- 7% vs 64 +/- 6%) [30].
  • In conclusion, our data provide functional evidence for the presence of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent nerve endings in the guinea-pig terminal biliary tract, whose stimulation by capsaicin or EFS produces the release of tachykinins and CGRP [31].
  • All electrical and mechanical NANC responses to EFS which were resistant to MEN 11420, either in the absence or presence of nifedipine, were abolished by the subsequent application of the NK1 receptor antagonist, SR 140333 (1 microM) [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of EFS


  1. Intensified external-beam radiation therapy improves the outcome of stage 4 neuroblastoma in children > 1 year with residual local disease. Simon, T., Hero, B., Bongartz, R., Schmidt, M., Müller, R.P., Berthold, F. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. New score predicting for prognosis in PML-RARA+, AML1-ETO+, or CBFBMYH11+ acute myeloid leukemia based on quantification of fusion transcripts. Schnittger, S., Weisser, M., Schoch, C., Hiddemann, W., Haferlach, T., Kern, W. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Long-term follow-up for locally advanced and inflammatory breast cancer patients treated with multimodality therapy. Low, J.A., Berman, A.W., Steinberg, S.M., Danforth, D.N., Lippman, M.E., Swain, S.M. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Randomized comparison of combination chemotherapy with etoposide, bleomycin, and either high-dose or standard-dose cisplatin in children and adolescents with high-risk malignant germ cell tumors: a pediatric intergroup study--Pediatric Oncology Group 9049 and Children's Cancer Group 8882. Cushing, B., Giller, R., Cullen, J.W., Marina, N.M., Lauer, S.J., Olson, T.A., Rogers, P.C., Colombani, P., Rescorla, F., Billmire, D.F., Vinocur, C.D., Hawkins, E.P., Davis, M.M., Perlman, E.J., London, W.B., Castleberry, R.P. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. beta-Catenin status predicts a favorable outcome in childhood medulloblastoma: the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group Brain Tumour Committee. Ellison, D.W., Onilude, O.E., Lindsey, J.C., Lusher, M.E., Weston, C.L., Taylor, R.E., Pearson, A.D., Clifford, S.C. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of mosapride citrate on patients after vagal nerve preserving distal gastrectomy reconstructed by interposition of a jejunal J pouch with a jejunal conduit for early gastric cancer. Tomita, R., Ikeda, T., Fujisaki, S., Koshinaga, T., Tanjoh, K. World journal of surgery. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The multi-disciplinary role of 'pion factories'. Davies, J.D., Batty, C.J., Green, K. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of cell division: stop the SIN! Gruneberg, U., Nigg, E.A. Trends Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. CD200 is a new prognostic factor in multiple myeloma. Moreaux, J., Hose, D., Reme, T., Jourdan, E., Hundemer, M., Legouffe, E., Moine, P., Bourin, P., Moos, M., Corre, J., M??hler, T., De Vos, J., Rossi, J.F., Goldschmidt, H., Klein, B. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Frequent gain of chromosome band 1q21 in plasma-cell dyscrasias detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization: incidence increases from MGUS to relapsed myeloma and is related to prognosis and disease progression following tandem stem-cell transplantation. Hanamura, I., Stewart, J.P., Huang, Y., Zhan, F., Santra, M., Sawyer, J.R., Hollmig, K., Zangarri, M., Pineda-Roman, M., van Rhee, F., Cavallo, F., Burington, B., Crowley, J., Tricot, G., Barlogie, B., Shaughnessy, J.D. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparison of two regimens for the treatment of elderly patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Offidani, M., Corvatta, L., Malerba, L., Marconi, M., Catarini, M., Centurioni, R., Leoni, F., Scortechini, A.R., Masia, M.C., Leoni, P. Leuk. Lymphoma (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of S-salbutamol on human isolated bronchus. Templeton, A.G., Chapman, I.D., Chilvers, E.R., Morley, J., Handley, D.A. Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Detection and treatment of minimal residual disease in high-risk neuroblastoma. Reynolds, C.P. Pediatric transplantation. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Generation of a stable cell line producing high-titer self-inactivating lentiviral vectors. Xu, K., Ma, H., McCown, T.J., Verma, I.M., Kafri, T. Mol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Pharmacokinetics of linsidomine (SIN 1) after single and multiple intravenous short infusions in patients with renal insufficiency. Sennesael, J., Verbeelen, D., Degré, S., Unger, P., Stolear, J.C., Ostrowski, J., von Hattingberg, H.M., Gaertner, W. International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Dot far-western blot analysis of relative binding affinities of the Src homology 3 domains of Efs and its related proteins. Ohba, T., Ishino, M., Aoto, H., Sasaki, T. Anal. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of an Efs isoform that lacks the SH3 domain and chromosomal mapping of human Efs. Ishino, M., Ohba, T., Inazawa, J., Sasaki, H., Ariyama, Y., Sasaki, T. Oncogene (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Poor prognosis in multiple myeloma is associated only with partial or complete deletions of chromosome 13 or abnormalities involving 11q and not with other karyotype abnormalities. Tricot, G., Barlogie, B., Jagannath, S., Bracy, D., Mattox, S., Vesole, D.H., Naucke, S., Sawyer, J.R. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Single-agent arsenic trioxide in the treatment of newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia: durable remissions with minimal toxicity. Mathews, V., George, B., Lakshmi, K.M., Viswabandya, A., Bajel, A., Balasubramanian, P., Shaji, R.V., Srivastava, V.M., Srivastava, A., Chandy, M. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Down's syndrome is highly responsive to chemotherapy: experience on Pediatric Oncology Group AML Study 8498. Ravindranath, Y., Abella, E., Krischer, J.P., Wiley, J., Inoue, S., Harris, M., Chauvenet, A., Alvarado, C.S., Dubowy, R., Ritchey, A.K. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: I. Anatomic and histologic distribution, clinical features, and survival data of 371 patients registered in the German Multicenter Study GIT NHL 01/92. Koch, P., del Valle, F., Berdel, W.E., Willich, N.A., Reers, B., Hiddemann, W., Grothaus-Pinke, B., Reinartz, G., Brockmann, J., Temmesfeld, A., Schmitz, R., Rübe, C., Probst, A., Jaenke, G., Bodenstein, H., Junker, A., Pott, C., Schultze, J., Heinecke, A., Parwaresch, R., Tiemann, M. J. Clin. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of loop diuretics on cholinergic neurotransmission in human airways in vitro. Verleden, G.M., Pype, J.L., Deneffe, G., Demedts, M.G. Thorax (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Hematologic malignancies with t(4;11)(q21;q23)--a cytogenetic, morphologic, immunophenotypic and clinical study of 183 cases. European 11q23 Workshop participants. Johansson, B., Moorman, A.V., Haas, O.A., Watmore, A.E., Cheung, K.L., Swanton, S., Secker-Walker, L.M. Leukemia (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Disturbance of the prejunctional modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission during chronic granulomatous inflammation of the mouse ileum. De Man, J.G., Moreels, T.G., De Winter, B.Y., Bogers, J.J., Van Marck, E.A., Herman, A.G., Pelckmans, P.A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Protein expression profiling in high-risk breast cancer patients treated with high-dose or conventional dose-dense chemotherapy. Diallo-Danebrock, R., Ting, E., Gluz, O., Herr, A., Mohrmann, S., Geddert, H., Rody, A., Schaefer, K.L., Baldus, S.E., Hartmann, A., Wild, P.J., Burson, M., Gabbert, H.E., Nitz, U., Poremba, C. Clin. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. beta-NAD is a novel nucleotide released on stimulation of nerve terminals in human urinary bladder detrusor muscle. Breen, L.T., Smyth, L.M., Yamboliev, I.A., Mutafova-Yambolieva, V.N. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Treatment strategies and long-term results in paediatric patients treated in four consecutive AML-BFM trials. Creutzig, U., Zimmermann, M., Ritter, J., Reinhardt, D., Hermann, J., Henze, G., Jürgens, H., Kabisch, H., Reiter, A., Riehm, H., Gadner, H., Schellong, G. Leukemia (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. VIP antagonists enhance excitatory cholinergic neurotransmission in the human airway. Aizawa, H., Inoue, H., Shigyo, M., Takata, S., Koto, H., Matsumoto, K., Hara, N. Lung (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Incidence and prognostic impact of c-Kit, FLT3, and Ras gene mutations in core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML). Boissel, N., Leroy, H., Brethon, B., Philippe, N., de Botton, S., Auvrignon, A., Raffoux, E., Leblanc, T., Thomas, X., Hermine, O., Quesnel, B., Baruchel, A., Leverger, G., Dombret, H., Preudhomme, C. Leukemia (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Genetic studies of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with emphasis on p16, MLL, and ETV6 gene abnormalities: results of St Jude Total Therapy Study XII. Rubnitz, J.E., Behm, F.G., Pui, C.H., Evans, W.E., Relling, M.V., Raimondi, S.C., Harrison, P.L., Sandlund, J.T., Ribeiro, R.C., Grosveld, G., Downing, J.R. Leukemia (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Involvement of endogenous tachykinins and CGRP in the motor responses produced by capsaicin in the guinea-pig common bile duct. Patacchini, R., Barthó, L., De Giorgio, R., Lénárd, L., Stanghellini, V., Barbara, G., Lecci, A., Maggi, C.A. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. MEN 11420, a potent and selective tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist in the guinea-pig and human colon. Santicioli, P., Giuliani, S., Patacchini, R., Tramontana, M., Criscuoli, M., Maggi, C.A. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Prophylactic human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor after induction therapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Lehrnbecher, T., Zimmermann, M., Reinhardt, D., Dworzak, M., Stary, J., Creutzig, U. Blood (2007) [Pubmed]
  34. Outcomes of treatment of children and adolescents with recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease with dexamethasone, etoposide, cisplatin, cytarabine, and l-asparaginase, maintenance chemotherapy, and transplantation: Children's Cancer Group Study CCG-5912. Kobrinsky, N.L., Sposto, R., Shah, N.R., Anderson, J.R., DeLaat, C., Morse, M., Warkentin, P., Gilchrist, G.S., Cohen, M.D., Shina, D., Meadows, A.T. J. Clin. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities