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Gene Review

CDC2  -  cyclin-dependent kinase A-1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: CDC2A, CDC2AAT, CDK2, CDKA1, CDKA;1, ...
 
 
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Disease relevance of CDC2/CDC2A/CDC2AAT/CDK2/CDKA;1

  • We analyzed the functional structure of the CDKA;1 promoter, using fusion genes between various upstream regions of CDKA;1 and the Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene [1].
 

High impact information on CDC2/CDC2A/CDC2AAT/CDK2/CDKA;1

  • To address this question, we examined the expression of cdc2 and cye genes, which encode the catalytic and regulatory subunits, respectively, of cyclin-dependent protein kinases that control progression through the cell cycle [2].
  • Dominant negative mutants of the Cdc2 kinase uncouple cell division from iterative plant development [3].
  • Loss of the PAS2 function dephosphorylated Arabidopsis thaliana CDKA;1 and upregulated its kinase activity [4].
  • Constitutive overexpression of KRP2 slightly above its endogenous level only inhibited the mitotic cell cycle-specific CDKA;1 kinase complexes, whereas the endoreduplication cycle-specific CDKA;1 complexes were unaffected, resulting in an increase in the DNA ploidy level [5].
  • The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor KRP2 controls the onset of the endoreduplication cycle during Arabidopsis leaf development through inhibition of mitotic CDKA;1 kinase complexes [5].
 

Biological context of CDC2/CDC2A/CDC2AAT/CDK2/CDKA;1

 

Anatomical context of CDC2/CDC2A/CDC2AAT/CDK2/CDKA;1

 

Associations of CDC2/CDC2A/CDC2AAT/CDK2/CDKA;1 with chemical compounds

  • Olomoucine, an inhibitor of the cdc2/cdk2 kinases activity, blocks plant cells at the G1 to S and G2 to M cell cycle transitions [11].
  • ATPK19 and ATPK6 have putative PEST regions in their N- and C-terminal regions, and these regions also contain putative phosphorylation sites that are recognized by casein kinases or proline-directed protein kinases such as cdc2, MAP kinase, and p54 MAP-2 kinase (SAPK) [12].
 

Other interactions of CDC2/CDC2A/CDC2AAT/CDK2/CDKA;1

  • Because protein levels of both CDKA;1 and CDKB1;1 were not affected, the temporary inhibition of mitotic activity that allows adaptation to the stress condition is most likely mediated by posttranslational control of CDK activity [13].
  • PAS2 was localized in the cytoplasm of dividing cells but moved into the nucleus upon cell differentiation, suggesting that the balance between cell division and differentiation is regulated through the interaction between CDKA;1 and the antiphosphatase PAS2 [4].
  • In vitro pull-down assay showed that CYCD4;1 bound to CDKB2;1 and CDKA;1 [14].
  • These results suggest that CYCD4;2 has a promotive function in cell division by interacting with CDKA;1 regardless of the unusual primary sequence [15].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CDC2/CDC2A/CDC2AAT/CDK2/CDKA;1

References

  1. An upstream region of the Arabidopsis thaliana CDKA;1 (CDC2aAt) gene directs transcription during trichome development. Imajuku, Y., Ohashi, Y., Aoyama, T., Goto, K., Oka, A. Plant Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Control of root growth and development by cyclin expression. Doerner, P., Jørgensen, J.E., You, R., Steppuhn, J., Lamb, C. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Dominant negative mutants of the Cdc2 kinase uncouple cell division from iterative plant development. Hemerly, A., Engler, J.d.e. .A., Bergounioux, C., Van Montagu, M., Engler, G., Inzé, D., Ferreira, P. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Arabidopsis PASTICCINO2 is an antiphosphatase involved in regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase A. Da Costa, M., Bach, L., Landrieu, I., Bellec, Y., Catrice, O., Brown, S., De Veylder, L., Lippens, G., Inzé, D., Faure, J.D. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor KRP2 controls the onset of the endoreduplication cycle during Arabidopsis leaf development through inhibition of mitotic CDKA;1 kinase complexes. Verkest, A., Manes, C.L., Vercruysse, S., Maes, S., Van Der Schueren, E., Beeckman, T., Genschik, P., Kuiper, M., Inzé, D., De Veylder, L. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of two cell-cycle-controlling cdc2 gene homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Hirayama, T., Imajuku, Y., Anai, T., Matsui, M., Oka, A. Gene (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Exon-intron organization of the Arabidopsis thaliana protein kinase genes CDC2a and CDC2b. Imajuku, Y., Hirayama, T., Endoh, H., Oka, A. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. The Arabidopsis functional homolog of the p34cdc2 protein kinase. Ferreira, P.C., Hemerly, A.S., Villarroel, R., Van Montagu, M., Inzé, D. Plant Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of three loci controlling resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana accession Ms-0 to two powdery mildew diseases. Xiao, S., Ellwood, S., Findlay, K., Oliver, R.P., Turner, J.G. Plant J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Diverse phosphoregulatory mechanisms controlling cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinases in Arabidopsis. Shimotohno, A., Ohno, R., Bisova, K., Sakaguchi, N., Huang, J., Koncz, C., Uchimiya, H., Umeda, M. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Olomoucine, an inhibitor of the cdc2/cdk2 kinases activity, blocks plant cells at the G1 to S and G2 to M cell cycle transitions. Glab, N., Labidi, B., Qin, L.X., Trehin, C., Bergounioux, C., Meijer, L. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Two genes that encode ribosomal-protein S6 kinase homologs are induced by cold or salinity stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mizoguchi, T., Hayashida, N., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K., Kamada, H., Shinozaki, K. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Cell cycle modulation in the response of the primary root of Arabidopsis to salt stress. West, G., Inzé, D., Beemster, G.T. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Arabidopsis D-type cyclin CYCD4;1 is a novel cyclin partner of B2-type cyclin-dependent kinase. Kono, A., Umeda-Hara, C., Lee, J., Ito, M., Uchimiya, H., Umeda, M. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. A distinct type of cyclin D, CYCD4;2, involved in the activation of cell division in Arabidopsis. Kono, A., Ohno, R., Umeda-Hara, C., Uchimiya, H., Umeda, M. Plant Cell Rep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Molecular characterization of Arabidopsis PHO80-like proteins, a novel class of CDKA;1-interacting cyclins. Torres Acosta, J.A., de Almeida Engler, J., Raes, J., Magyar, Z., De Groodt, R., Inzé, D., De Veylder, L. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
 
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