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Gene Review

ACT2  -  actin 2

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on ACT2

  • Lat B and actin2 mutant overexpression inhibited the trafficking of two vacuolar reporter proteins, sporamin:green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Arabidopsis thaliana aleurain-like protein:GFP, to the central vacuole; instead, a punctate staining pattern was observed [1].
  • In the wild-type plants, ACT1 is predominantly expressed in the mature pollen, growing pollen tubes, and ovules, whereas ACT2 is constitutively and strongly expressed in all vegetative tissues and organs, but not in pollen [2].
  • The detailed characterization of the der1 phenotypes revealed that ACT2 is not only involved in root hair tip growth, but is also required for correct selection of the bulge site on the epidermal cell [3].
  • The act2-1 mutant phenotypes were fully rescued by an ACT2 genomic transgene [4].
  • The three der1 alleles develop the mutant phenotype to different degrees and are all missense mutations, thus providing the means to study the effect of partially functional ACT2 [3].

Biological context of ACT2

  • When expressed constitutively under the actin2 promoter, synROS repressed the expression of the reporter gene gusA linked to a modified CaMV35S promoter containing ROS operator sequences in the vicinity of the TATA box and downstream of the transcription initiation signal [5].
  • Among them, the up-regulation of genes related to protein degradation (HRD1, SEL-1L/HRD3 and DER1), regulation of translation (P58(IPK)), and apoptosis (BAX inhibitor-1) was reconfirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR [6].

Anatomical context of ACT2

  • Thus, the der1 mutants are useful tools to better understand the function of the actin cytoskeleton in the process of root hair formation [3].

Other interactions of ACT2

  • Only ACT2 and ACT8 were found in epidermal and in mesophyll cells [7].


  1. Actin filaments play a critical role in vacuolar trafficking at the Golgi complex in plant cells. Kim, H., Park, M., Kim, S.J., Hwang, I. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional nonequivalency of actin isovariants in Arabidopsis. Kandasamy, M.K., McKinney, E.C., Meagher, R.B. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. ACTIN2 is essential for bulge site selection and tip growth during root hair development of Arabidopsis. Ringli, C., Baumberger, N., Diet, A., Frey, B., Keller, B. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Both vegetative and reproductive actin isovariants complement the stunted root hair phenotype of the Arabidopsis act2-1 mutation. Gilliland, L.U., Kandasamy, M.K., Pawloski, L.C., Meagher, R.B. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. A ROS repressor-mediated binary regulation system for control of gene expression in transgenic plants. Schäfer, U.A., Hegedus, D.D., Bate, N.J., Hannoufa, A. Transgenic Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Gene expression in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Kamauchi, S., Nakatani, H., Nakano, C., Urade, R. FEBS J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Distribution of actin gene isoforms in the Arabidopsis leaf measured in microsamples from intact individual cells. Laval, V., Koroleva, O.A., Murphy, E., Lu, C., Milner, J.J., Hooks, M.A., Tomos, A.D. Planta (2002) [Pubmed]
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