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Gene Review

ACT1  -  actin 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: AAc1, ARABIDOPSIS ACTIN 1, F13M22.12, F13M22_12
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Disease relevance of ACT1

  • ADF increases the rate of propulsion of Listeria monocytogenes in highly diluted, ADF-limited platelet extracts and shortens the actin tails [1].
  • Some of them are involved either in the imbibition process of the seeds (such as an actin isoform or a WD-40 repeat protein) or in the seed dehydration process (e.g. cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) [2].
  • The actin cytoskeleton and the microtubule system of the cells, as well as the dynamics of root growth, remain unchanged after short-term application of NR, indicating a relatively low toxicity of this chemical [3].

High impact information on ACT1

  • In addition, actin-dependent relocalization of PIN3 in response to gravity provides a mechanism for redirecting auxin flux to trigger asymmetric growth [4].
  • A major property of ADF is its ability to enhance the in vitro turnover rate (treadmilling) of actin filaments to a value comparable to that observed in vivo in motile lamellipodia [1].
  • Plasma membrane and intracellular pools of AUX1 are interconnected by actin-dependent constitutive trafficking, which is not sensitive to the vesicle trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A [5].
  • Immunolabeling of callus tissue with actin subclass-specific antibodies revealed that the predominant ACT7 is coexpressed with the other actin proteins [6].
  • In contrast, reduced AtADF expression promoted the formation of actin cables, resulted in a delay in flowering, and stimulated cell expansion as well as organ growth [7].

Biological context of ACT1


Anatomical context of ACT1

  • This model was reinforced by genetic studies in the Drosophila central nervous system and Dictyostelium, where the knockout of certain SCAR-complex components leads to excessive SCAR-mediated actin polymerization [12].
  • Actin filaments position the endomembrane system and act as a substrate on which organelle motility occurs [11].
  • PIN3 localizes to the plasma membrane and to vesicles that cycle in an actin-dependent manner [4].
  • We suggest that the coexpression, and probably the copolymerization, of the abundant ACT7 with the other actin isovariants in cultured cells may facilitate isovariant dynamics well suited for cellular responses to external stimuli such as hormones [6].
  • A similar decrease in NHR was observed following treatment of the wild-type Arabidopsis plants with cytochalasin E, an inhibitor of actin microfilament polymerisation [13].

Associations of ACT1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of ACT1

  • Comparison of ACT1 and ACT3 cDNA and genomic sequences revealed highly divergent flaking and intron sequences, whereas they encoded nearly identical proteins [8].
  • In the wild-type plants, ACT1 is predominantly expressed in the mature pollen, growing pollen tubes, and ovules, whereas ACT2 is constitutively and strongly expressed in all vegetative tissues and organs, but not in pollen [18].
  • Transgenic overexpression of the ACT7 vegetative isovariant and ectopic expression of the ACT1 reproductive actin isovariant also rescued the root hair elongation defects of the act2-1 mutant [19].
  • Therefore, actin cytoskeletal function and EDS1 activity, in combination, are major contributors to NHR in Arabidopsis against wheat powdery mildew [13].
  • Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) is a key regulator of the organization of the actin cytoskeleton during various cellular activities [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACT1

  • Gene-specific RNA gel blot hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that the distribution of ACT1 and ACT3 mRNAs was very similar: both preferentially accumulated at high levels in mature pollen and at very low levels in the other major organs [8].
  • Localization studies using Alexa Fluor-phalloidin in conjugation with confocal microscopy demonstrated a longitudinally and transversely oriented actin MF network in endodermal cells of stems and hypocotyls [14].


  1. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF/cofilin) enhances the rate of filament turnover: implication in actin-based motility. Carlier, M.F., Laurent, V., Santolini, J., Melki, R., Didry, D., Xia, G.X., Hong, Y., Chua, N.H., Pantaloni, D. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Proteomic analysis of arabidopsis seed germination and priming. Gallardo, K., Job, C., Groot, S.P., Puype, M., Demol, H., Vandekerckhove, J., Job, D. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Neutral red as a probe for confocal laser scanning microscopy studies of plant roots. Dubrovsky, J.G., Guttenberger, M., Saralegui, A., Napsucialy-Mendivil, S., Voigt, B., Baluska, F., Menzel, D. Ann. Bot. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Lateral relocation of auxin efflux regulator PIN3 mediates tropism in Arabidopsis. Friml, J., Wiśniewska, J., Benková, E., Mendgen, K., Palme, K. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Subcellular Trafficking of the Arabidopsis Auxin Influx Carrier AUX1 Uses a Novel Pathway Distinct from PIN1. Kleine-Vehn, J., Dhonukshe, P., Swarup, R., Bennett, M., Friml, J. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. One plant actin isovariant, ACT7, is induced by auxin and required for normal callus formation. Kandasamy, M.K., Gilliland, L.U., McKinney, E.C., Meagher, R.B. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. ADF proteins are involved in the control of flowering and regulate F-actin organization, cell expansion, and organ growth in Arabidopsis. Dong, C.H., Xia, G.X., Hong, Y., Ramachandran, S., Kost, B., Chua, N.H. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Conserved expression of the Arabidopsis ACT1 and ACT 3 actin subclass in organ primordia and mature pollen. An, Y.Q., Huang, S., McDowell, J.M., McKinney, E.C., Meagher, R.B. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Multiple conserved 5' elements are required for high-level pollen expression of the Arabidopsis reproductive actin ACT1. Vitale, A., Wu, R.J., Cheng, Z., Meagher, R.B. Plant Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Arabidopsis BRICK1/HSPC300 is an essential WAVE-complex subunit that selectively stabilizes the Arp2/3 activator SCAR2. Le, J., Mallery, E.L., Zhang, C., Brankle, S., Szymanski, D.B. Curr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Breaking the WAVE complex: the point of Arabidopsis trichomes. Szymanski, D.B. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Arabidopsis NAP1 is essential for Arp2/3-dependent trichome morphogenesis. Deeks, M.J., Kaloriti, D., Davies, B., Malhó, R., Hussey, P.J. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Loss of actin cytoskeletal function and EDS1 activity, in combination, severely compromises non-host resistance in Arabidopsis against wheat powdery mildew. Yun, B.W., Atkinson, H.A., Gaborit, C., Greenland, A., Read, N.D., Pallas, J.A., Loake, G.J. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton results in the promotion of gravitropism in inflorescence stems and hypocotyls of Arabidopsis. Yamamoto, K., Kiss, J.Z. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. The impact of alteration of polyunsaturated fatty acid levels on C6-aldehyde formation of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Zhuang, H., Hamilton-Kemp, T.R., Andersen, R.A., Hildebrand, D.F. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Cortical actin filaments in guard cells respond differently to abscisic acid in wild-type and abi1-1 mutant Arabidopsis. Eun, S.O., Bae, S.H., Lee, Y. Planta (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Visualization of peroxisomes in living plant cells reveals acto-myosin-dependent cytoplasmic streaming and peroxisome budding. Jedd, G., Chua, N.H. Plant Cell Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Functional nonequivalency of actin isovariants in Arabidopsis. Kandasamy, M.K., McKinney, E.C., Meagher, R.B. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Both vegetative and reproductive actin isovariants complement the stunted root hair phenotype of the Arabidopsis act2-1 mutation. Gilliland, L.U., Kandasamy, M.K., Pawloski, L.C., Meagher, R.B. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Molecular identification and characterization of the Arabidopsis AtADF1, AtADFS and AtADF6 genes. Dong, C.H., Kost, B., Xia, G., Chua, N.H. Plant Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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