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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

RIN4  -  RPM1 interacting protein 4

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of RIN4

  • Regulation of R protein-mediated signaling in response to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis involves the physical association of at least two R proteins with the negative regulator RPM1 INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4) [1].

High impact information on RIN4


Biological context of RIN4


Anatomical context of RIN4


Associations of RIN4 with chemical compounds

  • The type III effector AvrRpt2 is a cysteine protease that is autoprocessed inside the host cell where it activates RPS2 by causing RIN4 disappearance [6].
  • In addition to negatively regulating RPS2 activity, RIN4 is also a target of AvrRpt2, a Cys protease and cognate bacterial effector protein of RPS2 [9].

Physical interactions of RIN4


Regulatory relationships of RIN4

  • Thus, RIN4 positively regulates RPM1-mediated resistance yet is, formally, a negative regulator of basal defense responses [7].

Other interactions of RIN4

  • Therefore, we suggest that RPS2 initiates signaling based upon perception of RIN4 disappearance rather than direct recognition of AvrRpt2 [3].
  • Three of four avirulence mutants tested failed to interact with RIN4, an Arabidopsis protein previously shown to be required for RPM1 function [10].
  • The activation of RPS2 is coupled to the AvrRpt2-induced disappearance of the A. thaliana RIN4 protein [11].


  1. NDR1 Interaction with RIN4 Mediates the Differential Activation of Multiple Disease Resistance Pathways in Arabidopsis. Day, B., Dahlbeck, D., Staskawicz, B.J. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Two Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors inhibit RIN4-regulated basal defense in Arabidopsis. Kim, M.G., da Cunha, L., McFall, A.J., Belkhadir, Y., DebRoy, S., Dangl, J.L., Mackey, D. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Initiation of RPS2-specified disease resistance in Arabidopsis is coupled to the AvrRpt2-directed elimination of RIN4. Axtell, M.J., Staskawicz, B.J. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Arabidopsis RIN4 is a target of the type III virulence effector AvrRpt2 and modulates RPS2-mediated resistance. Mackey, D., Belkhadir, Y., Alonso, J.M., Ecker, J.R., Dangl, J.L. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Arabidopsis RIN4 negatively regulates disease resistance mediated by RPS2 and RPM1 downstream or independent of the NDR1 signal modulator and is not required for the virulence functions of bacterial type III effectors AvrRpt2 or AvrRpm1. Belkhadir, Y., Nimchuk, Z., Hubert, D.A., Mackey, D., Dangl, J.L. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. The Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2 cleaves its C-terminally acylated target, RIN4, from Arabidopsis membranes to block RPM1 activation. Kim, H.S., Desveaux, D., Singer, A.U., Patel, P., Sondek, J., Dangl, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. RIN4 interacts with Pseudomonas syringae type III effector molecules and is required for RPM1-mediated resistance in Arabidopsis. Mackey, D., Holt, B.F., Wiig, A., Dangl, J.L. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Membrane release and destabilization of Arabidopsis RIN4 following cleavage by Pseudomonas syringae AvrRpt2. Takemoto, D., Jones, D.A. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular basis for the RIN4 negative regulation of RPS2 disease resistance. Day, B., Dahlbeck, D., Huang, J., Chisholm, S.T., Li, D., Staskawicz, B.J. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. AvrB mutants lose both virulence and avirulence activities on soybean and Arabidopsis. Ong, L.E., Innes, R.W. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector AvrRpt2 promotes virulence independently of RIN4, a predicted virulence target in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lim, M.T., Kunkel, B.N. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
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