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Gene Review

RPM1  -  disease resistance protein RPM1

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of RPM1

  • The Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea effector protein AvrB induces resistance responses in soybean varieties that contain the resistance gene Rpg1-b and Arabidopsis varieties that carry RPM1 [1].
  • Expression profiling of the host response to bacterial infection: the transition from basal to induced defence responses in RPM1-mediated resistance [2].
  • Based on its structural features, Sw-5 belongs to the class of NBS-LRR resistance genes that includes the tomato Mi, 12, and Prf genes; the Arabidopsis RPM1 gene; and the plant potato virus X resistance gene Rx [3].
  • E. coli MC4100 transformants carrying the plasmic-borne P. syringae pv. syringae Pss61 hrp cluster and p. syringae pv. glycinea avrB expressed from a triple lacUV5 promoter gained the ability to elicit the hypersensitive response in soybean cultivars expressing Rpg1 and in an Arabidopsis thaliana accession expressing RPM1 [4].
  • Five of the 11 subfamilies have thus far been mapped to the vicinity of known soybean genes for resistance to potyviruses (Rsv1 and Rpv), Phytophthora root rot (Rps1, Rps2, and Rps3), and powdery mildew (rmd) [5].

High impact information on RPM1

  • Thus, RIN4 positively regulates RPM1-mediated resistance yet is, formally, a negative regulator of basal defense responses [6].
  • Results of a field experiment comparing the fitness of isogenic strains that differ in the presence or absence of RPM1 and its natural promoter reveal a large cost of RPM1, providing the first evidence that costs contribute to the maintenance of an ancient R-gene polymorphism [7].
  • Dynamics of disease resistance polymorphism at the Rpm1 locus of Arabidopsis [8].
  • R proteins RPM1 and RPS2 recognize the altered status and initiate a defense-signaling response [9].
  • Dynamic interactions among these proteins can regulate RPM1 stability and function, perhaps similarly to the formation and regulation of animal steroid receptor complexes [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of RPM1


Biological context of RPM1

  • In addition to this avirulence activity, AvrB also enhances bacterial virulence on soybean plants that lack Rpg1-b and induces a chlorotic phenotype on Arabidopsis plants that lack RPM1 [1].
  • The data presented indicate that PA is a positive regulator of RPM1- or RPS2-mediated disease resistance signalling, and that the biphasic PA production may be a conserved feature of signalling induced by the coiled-coil nucleotide binding domain leucine-rich repeat class of resistance proteins [12].
  • Despite this function, RPM1 encodes a protein sharing molecular features with recently described single-specificity R genes [13].
  • Ecotype Columbia and rps3-1 leaves biolistically cobombarded with plasmids expressing the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and avrB failed to produce GUS activity (indicative of cell death) only when RPM1 and avrB were present in the leaf [14].
  • Missense mutations in rpm1 are highly enriched in the nucleotide binding domain, suggesting that this region plays a key role either in the hypersensitive response associated with RPM1 activation or in RPM1 stability [15].

Anatomical context of RPM1


Associations of RPM1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of RPM1


Regulatory relationships of RPM1

  • A rin2 rin3 double mutant expresses diminished RPM1- and RPS2-dependent hypersensitive response (HR), but no alteration of pathogen growth [16].
  • RIN4 also negatively regulates inappropriate activation of both RPM1 and RPS2 [19].

Other interactions of RPM1


  1. AvrB mutants lose both virulence and avirulence activities on soybean and Arabidopsis. Ong, L.E., Innes, R.W. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression profiling of the host response to bacterial infection: the transition from basal to induced defence responses in RPM1-mediated resistance. de Torres, M., Sanchez, P., Fernandez-Delmond, I., Grant, M. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The broad-spectrum tospovirus resistance gene Sw-5 of tomato is a homolog of the root-knot nematode resistance gene Mi. Brommonschenkel, S.H., Frary, A., Frary, A., Tanksley, S.D. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Phenotypic expression of Pseudomonas syringae avr genes in E. coli is linked to the activities of the hrp-encoded secretion system. Pirhonen, M.U., Lidell, M.C., Rowley, D.L., Lee, S.W., Jin, S., Liang, Y., Silverstone, S., Keen, N.T., Hutcheson, S.W. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Isolation of a superfamily of candidate disease-resistance genes in soybean based on a conserved nucleotide-binding site. Yu, Y.G., Buss, G.R., Maroof, M.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. RIN4 interacts with Pseudomonas syringae type III effector molecules and is required for RPM1-mediated resistance in Arabidopsis. Mackey, D., Holt, B.F., Wiig, A., Dangl, J.L. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Fitness costs of R-gene-mediated resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Tian, D., Traw, M.B., Chen, J.Q., Kreitman, M., Bergelson, J. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Dynamics of disease resistance polymorphism at the Rpm1 locus of Arabidopsis. Stahl, E.A., Dwyer, G., Mauricio, R., Kreitman, M., Bergelson, J. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Plant defense: one post, multiple guards?! Marathe, R., Dinesh-Kumar, S.P. Mol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Cytosolic HSP90 associates with and modulates the Arabidopsis RPM1 disease resistance protein. Hubert, D.A., Tornero, P., Belkhadir, Y., Krishna, P., Takahashi, A., Shirasu, K., Dangl, J.L. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Convergent evolution of disease resistance gene specificity in two flowering plant families. Ashfield, T., Ong, L.E., Nobuta, K., Schneider, C.M., Innes, R.W. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Phospholipase-dependent signalling during the AvrRpm1- and AvrRpt2-induced disease resistance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Andersson, M.X., Kourtchenko, O., Dangl, J.L., Mackey, D., Ellerström, M. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Structure of the Arabidopsis RPM1 gene enabling dual specificity disease resistance. Grant, M.R., Godiard, L., Straube, E., Ashfield, T., Lewald, J., Sattler, A., Innes, R.W., Dangl, J.L. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of the Pseudomonas syringae avirulence protein AvrB in plant cells alleviates its dependence on the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) secretion system in eliciting genotype-specific hypersensitive cell death. Gopalan, S., Bauer, D.W., Alfano, J.R., Loniello, A.O., He, S.Y., Collmer, A. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Large-scale structure-function analysis of the Arabidopsis RPM1 disease resistance protein. Tornero, P., Chao, R.A., Luthin, W.N., Goff, S.A., Dangl, J.L. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. A duplicated pair of Arabidopsis RING-finger E3 ligases contribute to the RPM1- and RPS2-mediated hypersensitive response. Kawasaki, T., Nam, J., Boyes, D.C., Holt, B.F., Hubert, D.A., Wiig, A., Dangl, J.L. Plant J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. The Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2 cleaves its C-terminally acylated target, RIN4, from Arabidopsis membranes to block RPM1 activation. Kim, H.S., Desveaux, D., Singer, A.U., Patel, P., Sondek, J., Dangl, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular recognition of pathogen attack occurs inside of plant cells in plant disease resistance specified by the Arabidopsis genes RPS2 and RPM1. Leister, R.T., Ausubel, F.M., Katagiri, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Arabidopsis RIN4 negatively regulates disease resistance mediated by RPS2 and RPM1 downstream or independent of the NDR1 signal modulator and is not required for the virulence functions of bacterial type III effectors AvrRpt2 or AvrRpm1. Belkhadir, Y., Nimchuk, Z., Hubert, D.A., Mackey, D., Dangl, J.L. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of arabidopsis PLANT U-BOX17 and its functional tobacco homolog ACRE276 are required for cell death and defense. Yang, C.W., González-Lamothe, R., Ewan, R.A., Rowland, O., Yoshioka, H., Shenton, M., Ye, H., O'Donnell, E., Jones, J.D., Sadanandom, A. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector AvrRpt2 functions downstream or independently of SA to promote virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana. Chen, Z., Kloek, A.P., Cuzick, A., Moeder, W., Tang, D., Innes, R.W., Klessig, D.F., McDowell, J.M., Kunkel, B.N. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
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