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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Peronospora

  • However, resistances to an avirulent strain of Peronospora parasitica and avirulent and virulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae were compromised, suggesting that MPK6 plays a role in both resistance gene-mediated and basal resistance [1].

High impact information on Peronospora

  • RIN4 reduction results in heightened resistance to virulent Peronospora parasitica and P. syringae, and ectopic defense gene expression [2].
  • In Arabidopsis, a dominant mutant, suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1 (snc1), was identified previously that constitutively expresses pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and resistance against both Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 and Peronospora parasitica Noco2 [3].
  • We describe the identification of a mutant in the Arabidopsis accession Columbia (Col-0) that exhibits enhanced downy mildew (edm1) susceptibility to several Peronospora parasitica isolates, including the RPP7-diagnostic isolate Hiks1 [4].
  • In Arabidopsis ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler), RPP5 confers resistance to the pathogen Peronospora parasitica [5].
  • We cloned the RPP8 gene (for resistance to Peronospora parasitica) and compared the structure of alleles at this locus in resistant Landsberg erecta (Ler-0) and susceptible Columbia (Col-0) accessions [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Peronospora

  • The cpr5 plants were found to be constitutively resistant to two virulent pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 and Peronospora parasitica Noco2; to have endogenous expression of the pathogenesis-related gene 1 (PR-1); and to have an elevated level of salicylic acid (SA) [7].

Biological context of Peronospora


Associations of Peronospora with chemical compounds

  • Plants expressing the antisense gene also had high endogenous salicylic acid levels, constitutive expression of the PR-1 gene, and were resistant to Peronospora parasitica, consistent with the activation of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) [10].
  • The RPP13 allele from the accession Nd-1, designated RPP13-Nd, confers resistance to five different isolates of the biotrophic oomycete, Peronospora parasitica (causal agent of downy mildew), and encodes an NBS-LRR type R protein with a putative amino-terminal leucine zipper [11].
  • Thus, JA and ET sensitivity are required for cir1-mediated resistance against P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 but not Peronospora parasitica Noco2 [12].

Gene context of Peronospora

  • The pbs2 mutation also had varying effects on resistance mediated by seven different RPP (recognition of Peronospora parasitica) genes [13].
  • RPP13 is a simple locus in Arabidopsis thaliana for alleles that specify downy mildew resistance to different avirulence determinants in Peronospora parasitica [11].
  • In Arabidopsis, RPP4 confers resistance to Peronospora parasitica (P.p.) races Emoy2 and Emwa1 (downy mildew) [14].
  • However, during infection with an avirulent oomycete, Peronospora parasitica isolate Cala-2, only NHL25 expression was reproducibly induced [15].
  • This plant carries a semidominant, conditional lethal mutation that confers constitutive expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR-1, PR-2, PR-5 and the defensin gene PDF1.2. cpr22 plants also display spontaneous lesion formation, elevated levels of salicylic acid (SA) and heightened resistance to Peronospora parasitica Emco5 [16].


  1. Silencing of the mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6 compromises disease resistance in Arabidopsis. Menke, F.L., van Pelt, J.A., Pieterse, C.M., Klessig, D.F. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. RIN4 interacts with Pseudomonas syringae type III effector molecules and is required for RPM1-mediated resistance in Arabidopsis. Mackey, D., Holt, B.F., Wiig, A., Dangl, J.L. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. A gain-of-function mutation in a plant disease resistance gene leads to constitutive activation of downstream signal transduction pathways in suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1. Zhang, Y., Goritschnig, S., Dong, X., Li, X. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Arabidopsis SGT1b is required for defense signaling conferred by several downy mildew resistance genes. Tör, M., Gordon, P., Cuzick, A., Eulgem, T., Sinapidou, E., Mert-Türk, F., Can, C., Dangl, J.L., Holub, E.B. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Pronounced intraspecific haplotype divergence at the RPP5 complex disease resistance locus of Arabidopsis. Noël, L., Moores, T.L., van Der Biezen, E.A., Parniske, M., Daniels, M.J., Parker, J.E., Jones, J.D. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Intragenic recombination and diversifying selection contribute to the evolution of downy mildew resistance at the RPP8 locus of Arabidopsis. McDowell, J.M., Dhandaydham, M., Long, T.A., Aarts, M.G., Goff, S., Holub, E.B., Dangl, J.L. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. The cpr5 mutant of Arabidopsis expresses both NPR1-dependent and NPR1-independent resistance. Bowling, S.A., Clarke, J.D., Liu, Y., Klessig, D.F., Dong, X. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Arabidopsis signal transduction mutant defective in chemically and biologically induced disease resistance. Delaney, T.P., Friedrich, L., Ryals, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of salicylic acid and NIM1/NPR1 in race-specific resistance in arabidopsis. Rairdan, G.J., Delaney, T.P. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase expression in Arabidopsis causes a lesion-mimic phenotype that induces systemic acquired resistance. Molina, A., Volrath, S., Guyer, D., Maleck, K., Ryals, J., Ward, E. Plant J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. RPP13 is a simple locus in Arabidopsis thaliana for alleles that specify downy mildew resistance to different avirulence determinants in Peronospora parasitica. Bittner-Eddy, P.D., Crute, I.R., Holub, E.B., Beynon, J.L. Plant J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of a novel, defense-related Arabidopsis mutant, cir1, isolated by luciferase imaging. Murray, S.L., Thomson, C., Chini, A., Read, N.D., Loake, G.J. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of three putative signal transduction genes involved in R gene-specified disease resistance in Arabidopsis. Warren, R.F., Merritt, P.M., Holub, E., Innes, R.W. Genetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Arabidopsis RPP4 is a member of the RPP5 multigene family of TIR-NB-LRR genes and confers downy mildew resistance through multiple signalling components. van der Biezen, E.A., Freddie, C.T., Kahn, K., Parker, J.E., Jones, J.D. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. NHL25 and NHL3, two NDR1/HIN1-1ike genes in Arabidopsis thaliana with potential role(s) in plant defense. Varet, A., Parker, J., Tornero, P., Nass, N., Nürnberger, T., Dangl, J.L., Scheel, D., Lee, J. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Environmentally sensitive, SA-dependent defense responses in the cpr22 mutant of Arabidopsis. Yoshioka, K., Kachroo, P., Tsui, F., Sharma, S.B., Shah, J., Klessig, D.F. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
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