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Gene Review

GR  -  glutathione reductase

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ATGR2, EMB2360
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Disease relevance of GR


High impact information on GR

  • Further analysis of the Austrian Ni hyperaccumulator T. goesingense revealed that the high concentrations of OAS, Cys, and GSH observed in this hyperaccumulator coincide with constitutively high activity of both serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and glutathione reductase [2].
  • During recovery from photooxidative stress, transcripts for cytosolic glutathione reductase (GOR2) increased, emphasizing the role of glutathione in this stress [3].
  • Analysis shows that dark-grown transgenic seedlings expressing AtMYB21-GR fusion protein display some features of the cop1 mutant, including decreased hypocotyl cell expansion, open cotyledons in the dark, and seedling lethality in the presence of dexamethasone [4].
  • In contrast, O3 exposure causes a decline in the levels of two chloroplastic antioxidant mRNAs (iron superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) and two photosynthetic protein mRNAs (chlorophyll a/b-binding protein and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit) [5].
  • GSSG transiently accumulated during the in vitro TE differentiation and exogenously applied GSSG down-regulated transcript levels of GSSG reductase (GR), an enzyme maintaining glutathione in a reduced redox state, while there were no significant changes in transcript levels of enzymes involved in GSH synthesis [6].

Biological context of GR

  • A T-DNA-inserted knockout mutant of cytosolic GR exhibited delayed TE formation; this phenotype was little affected by GSSG application [6].
  • Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing the GR gene showed delayed TE formation in the root, which was attributed to the suppression of cell division [6].

Associations of GR with chemical compounds

  • Taken together, the process of the redox changes in glutathione is considered to be controlled via GR activity for TE differentiation [6].

Other interactions of GR

  • Total activities of catalase (CAT, EC, peroxidase (POD, EC, superoxide dismutase (EC and glutathione reductase (EC increased greatly in response to MeJA, particularly a 100-fold increase in POD activity 7 days after MeJA treatment [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GR


  1. Cloning, sequencing, and regulation of the glutathione reductase gene from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120. Jiang, F., Hellman, U., Sroga, G.E., Bergman, B., Mannervik, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Increased glutathione biosynthesis plays a role in nickel tolerance in thlaspi nickel hyperaccumulators. Freeman, J.L., Persans, M.W., Nieman, K., Albrecht, C., Peer, W., Pickering, I.J., Salt, D.E. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Photosynthetic electron transport regulates the expression of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase genes in Arabidopsis during excess light stress. Karpinski, S., Escobar, C., Karpinska, B., Creissen, G., Mullineaux, P.M. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. AtMYB21, a gene encoding a flower-specific transcription factor, is regulated by COP1. Shin, B., Choi, G., Yi, H., Yang, S., Cho, I., Kim, J., Lee, S., Paek, N.C., Kim, J.H., Song, P.S., Choi, G. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential accumulation of antioxidant mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ozone. Conklin, P.L., Last, R.L. Plant Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Change in the redox state of glutathione regulates differentiation of tracheary elements in Zinnia cells and Arabidopsis roots. Henmi, K., Demura, T., Tsuboi, S., Fukuda, H., Iwabuchi, M., Ogawa, K. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of chlorophyll reduction in Arabidopsis thaliana by methyl jasmonate or norflurazon on antioxidant systems. Jung, S. Plant Physiol. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of the gene encoding glutathione reductase in Brassica campestris. Lee, H., Jo, J., Son, D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
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