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Gene Review

CHR1  -  ATP-dependent DNA helicase DDM1

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on DDM1


Biological context of DDM1


Associations of DDM1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of DDM1

  • In addition, genes known for their role in development, such as PICKLE/GYMNOS and PIE1, or in silencing, such as DDM1, turned out to also be involved in DNA damage response [12].
  • Maintenance of genomic imprinting at the Arabidopsis medea locus requires zygotic DDM1 activity [13].
  • This histone methylation is dependent on the KRYPTONITE and DDM1 genes (SU[VAR]3-9 and SWI2/SNF2 homologs, respectively) [14].
  • DDM1 and MET1 control heterochromatin assembly at chromocenters by their influence on DNA maintenance (CpG) methylation and subsequent methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 [7].
  • The synergistic release of TGS revealed by gene expression patterns from silent loci, drastic developmental abnormalities, and characteristic changes in nuclear architecture in these double mutants implies that DDM1 and MOM are likely to operate at independent levels in TGS control [15].


  1. Maintenance of genomic methylation requires a SWI2/SNF2-like protein. Jeddeloh, J.A., Stokes, T.L., Richards, E.J. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Mobilization of transposons by a mutation abolishing full DNA methylation in Arabidopsis. Miura, A., Yonebayashi, S., Watanabe, K., Toyama, T., Shimada, H., Kakutani, T. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Robertson's Mutator transposons in A. thaliana are regulated by the chromatin-remodeling gene Decrease in DNA Methylation (DDM1). Singer, T., Yordan, C., Martienssen, R.A. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. The DNA methylation locus DDM1 is required for maintenance of gene silencing in Arabidopsis. Jeddeloh, J.A., Bender, J., Richards, E.J. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Deficient in DNA methylation 1 (DDM1) defines a novel family of chromatin-remodeling factors. Brzeski, J., Jerzmanowski, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Involvement of putative SNF2 chromatin remodeling protein DRD1 in RNA-directed DNA methylation. Kanno, T., Mette, M.F., Kreil, D.P., Aufsatz, W., Matzke, M., Matzke, A.J. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. DNA methylation controls histone H3 lysine 9 methylation and heterochromatin assembly in Arabidopsis. Soppe, W.J., Jasencakova, Z., Houben, A., Kakutani, T., Meister, A., Huang, M.S., Jacobsen, S.E., Schubert, I., Fransz, P.F. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana DNA hypomethylation mutant. Kakutani, T., Jeddeloh, J.A., Richards, E.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Embryo and endosperm development is disrupted in the female gametophytic capulet mutants of Arabidopsis. Grini, P.E., Jürgens, G., Hülskamp, M. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. DNA methylation increases throughout Arabidopsis development. Ruiz-García, L., Cervera, M.T., Martínez-Zapater, J.M. Planta (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Dependence of heterochromatic histone H3 methylation patterns on the Arabidopsis gene DDM1. Gendrel, A.V., Lippman, Z., Yordan, C., Colot, V., Martienssen, R.A. Science (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Involvement of the Arabidopsis SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling gene family in DNA damage response and recombination. Shaked, H., Avivi-Ragolsky, N., Levy, A.A. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Maintenance of genomic imprinting at the Arabidopsis medea locus requires zygotic DDM1 activity. Vielle-Calzada, J.P., Thomas, J., Spillane, C., Coluccio, A., Hoeppner, M.A., Grossniklaus, U. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Interplay between two epigenetic marks. DNA methylation and histone H3 lysine 9 methylation. Johnson, L., Cao, X., Jacobsen, S. Curr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Two regulatory levels of transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis. Mittelsten Scheid, O., Probst, A.V., Afsar, K., Paszkowski, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
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