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Gene Review

ARL6  -  ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 6, BBS3, Bardet-Biedl syndrome 3 protein, RP55
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Disease relevance of ARL6


High impact information on ARL6

  • We uncovered four different homozygous substitutions in ARL6 in four unrelated families affected with Bardet-Biedl syndrome, two of which disrupt a threonine residue important for GTP binding and function of several related small GTP-binding proteins [1].
  • We hypothesized that the genomes of model organisms that contained the orthologues to known BBS genes would also likely contain a BBS3 orthologue [5].
  • BBS3 was previously mapped to chromosome 3 by linkage analysis in a large Israeli Bedouin kindred [5].
  • By including multiple organisms that have relatively small genome sizes in the analysis, the number of candidate genes was reduced, and a few genes mapping to the BBS3 interval emerged as the best candidates for this disorder [5].
  • Comparative genomic analysis identifies an ADP-ribosylation factor-like gene as the cause of Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS3) [5].

Biological context of ARL6

  • Haplotype analysis reduces the BBS3 critical region to a 6-cM interval between D3S1595-D3S1753 [3].
  • Linkage analysis with microsatellite markers showed that the disease in the family was assigned to a region around marker loci at 3p13-p12 (maximum LOD score = 4.15 and recombination fraction straight theta = 0, at D3S1603 microsatellite marker), to which the BBS3 locus has been mapped [6].
  • Conversely, NF-kappaB inhibition sensitises ARL-6 cells to H2O2-induced apoptosis [4].
  • Adv-mIkappaBalpha sensitized ARL-6 cells to H2O2-induced apoptosis, but cell proliferation was minimally suppressed [4].

Anatomical context of ARL6

  • We report here the isolation of a new member of the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-like family (ARL-6) present in the J2E erythroleukemic cell line, but not its myeloid variants [7].
  • Co-immunoprecipitation of ARL-6 confirmed a stable association between ARL-6 and SEC61beta in COS cells [7].
  • METHODS: Cultured primary rat hepatocytes and ARL-6 cells were treated with graded doses of H2O2 [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ARL6

  • We studied the three original families used for the identification of BBS2, BBS3, and BBS4 loci to define the ocular phenotypes of patients (n = 34) and obligate carriers (n = 32) using clinical examination and electroretinography (ERG) [8].


  1. Mutations in a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins causes Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Fan, Y., Esmail, M.A., Ansley, S.J., Blacque, O.E., Boroevich, K., Ross, A.J., Moore, S.J., Badano, J.L., May-Simera, H., Compton, D.S., Green, J.S., Lewis, R.A., van Haelst, M.M., Parfrey, P.S., Baillie, D.L., Beales, P.L., Katsanis, N., Davidson, W.S., Leroux, M.R. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3 is involved in kidney and photoreceptor development. Schrick, J.J., Vogel, P., Abuin, A., Hampton, B., Rice, D.S. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Canadian Bardet-Biedl syndrome family reduces the critical region of BBS3 (3p) and presents with a variable phenotype. Young, T.L., Woods, M.O., Parfrey, P.S., Green, J.S., O'Leary, E., Hefferton, D., Davidson, W.S. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. NF-kappaB protects rat ARL-6 hepatocellular carcinoma cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. Qiao, L., Yu, J., Dent, P., Farrell, G. Cancer Biol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparative genomic analysis identifies an ADP-ribosylation factor-like gene as the cause of Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS3). Chiang, A.P., Nishimura, D., Searby, C., Elbedour, K., Carmi, R., Ferguson, A.L., Secrist, J., Braun, T., Casavant, T., Stone, E.M., Sheffield, V.C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Bardet-Biedl syndrome type 3 in an Iranian family: clinical study and confirmation of disease localization. Ghadami, M., Tomita, H.A., Najafi, M.T., Damavandi, E., Farahvash, M.S., Yamada, K., Majidzadeh-A, K., Niikawa, N. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. A novel ADP-ribosylation like factor (ARL-6), interacts with the protein-conducting channel SEC61beta subunit. Ingley, E., Williams, J.H., Walker, C.E., Tsai, S., Colley, S., Sayer, M.S., Tilbrook, P.A., Sarna, M., Beaumont, J.G., Klinken, S.P. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Ocular phenotypes of three genetic variants of Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Héon, E., Westall, C., Carmi, R., Elbedour, K., Panton, C., Mackeen, L., Stone, E.M., Sheffield, V.C. Am. J. Med. Genet. A (2005) [Pubmed]
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