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Gene Review

AAC3  -  ADP/ATP carrier protein AAC3

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: ADP,ATP carrier protein 3, ADP/ATP translocase 3, ANT 3, Adenine nucleotide translocator 3, YBR0753, ...
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High impact information on AAC3

  • The AAC3 molecules in the crystal are arranged in symmetrical homo-dimers, but the translocation pore for adenine nucleotides lies in the center of the molecule and not along the dyad axis of the dimer [1].
  • Indeed, when cloned into multicopy plasmid, AAC3 was able to replace the disrupted AAC2 in the JLY-73 strain [2].
  • The newly discovered gene, AAC3, is homologous with the previously known genes AAC1 and AAC2 [2].
  • The concomitant disruption of the AAC2 and AAC3, however, results in arrest of cell growth under conditions of low oxygen tension [2].
  • The complex character of URS(1) includes the presence of two different cis-acting sequences: (i) a RAP1 (repressor activator protein 1)-binding site that is capable of binding the RAP1 protein in vitro and (ii) two putative ethanol-repression sequences, the modification of which derepresses the AAC3 gene [3].

Biological context of AAC3

  • The promoter region of the AAC3 gene was isolated, sequenced, and deletion analysis was performed using lacZ as a reporter gene to determine the cis-acting regions responsible for the regulation of AAC3 expression [4].
  • The results of the deletion analysis show that the negative control of the AAC3 gene by oxygen and ROX1 factor is mediated by an upstream repression sequence consisting of a T-rich segment adjacent to the consensus elements that are present in the 5' flanking regions of several other yeast genes [4].
  • Both sites function to completely switch off the expression of the AAC3 isoform when ATP is made by oxidative phosphorylation, and they modulate AAC3 expression when import of glycolytic ATP into mitochondria is required [3].
  • Two other previously unrecognized beta-transducin-like proteins (S. cerevisiae MAK11 and D. discoideum AAC3) were also identified, and an unexpectedly high degree of sequence homology was found between a Chlamydomonas beta-like polypeptide and the C12.3 gene of chickens [5].
  • RPL19A was also found to be adjacent to the chromosome II AAC3 gene, encoding the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier protein [6].

Anatomical context of AAC3

  • As demonstrated by measurements of [14C]ADP specific binding and transport, all three translocator proteins, AAC1, AAC2 and AAC3 when present in the mitochondrial membrane, exhibited similar translocation properties [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AAC3


  1. Projection structure of the atractyloside-inhibited mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kunji, E.R., Harding, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. A third ADP/ATP translocator gene in yeast. Kolarov, J., Kolarova, N., Nelson, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. A carbon-source-responsive element is required for regulation of the hypoxic ADP/ATP carrier (AAC3) isoform in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sokolíková, B., Sabová, L., Kissová, I., Kolarov, J. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Transcriptional control of AAC3 gene encoding mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by oxygen, heme and ROX1 factor. Sabová, L., Zeman, I., Supek, F., Kolarov, J. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparative analysis of the beta transducin family with identification of several new members including PWP1, a nonessential gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is divergently transcribed from NMT1. Duronio, R.J., Gordon, J.I., Boguski, M.S. Proteins (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RPL19A gene encoding a homolog of the mammalian ribosomal protein L19. Song, J.M., Cheung, E., Rabinowitz, J.C. Yeast (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Yeast ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) proteins exhibit similar enzymatic properties but their deletion produces different phenotypes. Drgon, T., Sabová, L., Gavurniková, G., Kolarov, J. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Expression of human ANT2 gene in highly proliferative cells: GRBOX, a new transcriptional element, is involved in the regulation of glycolytic ATP import into mitochondria. Giraud, S., Bonod-Bidaud, C., Wesolowski-Louvel, M., Stepien, G. J. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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