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Gene Review

RGT1  -  Rgt1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Glucose transport transcription regulator RGT1, Restores glucose transport protein 1, YKL038W, YKL251
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High impact information on RGT1

  • It is required for glucose-stimulated regulation of Rgt1, a repressor of several glucose-induced HXT genes [1].
  • Rgt1 binds in vivo to multiple sites in the HXT3 promoter in a nonadditive, synergistic manner, leading to synergistic repression of HXT3 transcription [2].
  • These results suggest that glucose regulates the DNA-binding ability of Rgt1 by inducing its phosphorylation [2].
  • We show that glucose inhibits the DNA-binding ability of Rgt1, thereby relieving repression of HXT gene expression [2].
  • We identified the Rgt1 consensus binding site sequence 5'-CGGANNA-3', multiple copies of which are present in all HXT promoters regulated by Rgt1 [2].

Biological context of RGT1


Anatomical context of RGT1


Associations of RGT1 with chemical compounds

  • The RGT1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a central role in the glucose-induced expression of hexose transporter (HXT) genes [7].
  • PKA and the consensus serine residues of Rgt1 are required for glucose-induced removal of Rgt1 from the HXT promoters and for induction of HXT expression [4].

Physical interactions of RGT1

  • Expression was elevated to a high level in an rgt1 mutant in the absence of Snf3p suggesting that this DDSE region contains binding sites for the Rgt1p transcriptional repressor/activator [3].
  • We report that Rgt1 interacts with Std1 and Mth1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitates with both proteins in vivo only when glucose is absent [8].
  • Additional gel shift assays narrowed the Rgt1 binding site to the SUC2-B element within the SUC2 UAS, which is similar to previously identified Rgt1 binding sites present in other genes [9].

Regulatory relationships of RGT1

  • Rgt1 represses HXK2 expression by binding specifically to the motif (CGGAAAA) located at -395 bp relative to the ATG translation start codon in the HXK2 promoter [10].
  • It is likely that Rgt1 stimulates the expression of an activator of the HXT1 gene at high concentrations of glucose [11].
  • In vivo levels of invertase activity in an rgt1Delta strain were reduced relative to an isogenic RGT+ strain when these strains were grown under inducing (low glucose) conditions, suggesting that Rgt1 may have a role in the activated transcription of SUC2 [9].

Other interactions of RGT1

  • HXT1 expression is also induced by high glucose levels through another regulatory mechanism: rgt1 mutants still require high levels of glucose for maximal induction of HXT1 expression [12].
  • Disappearance of Std1 in response to glucose is accelerated when glucose induction of STD1 expression due to feedback regulation by Rgt1 is prevented [13].
  • Disruption of the RGT1 gene causes an 18-fold increase in the level of HXK2 transcript in the absence of glucose [10].
  • The glucose transporter Snf3p, which appears to be a low-glucose sensor, is required for inhibition of Rgt1p repressor function by low levels of glucose [7].
  • Rgt2p, a glucose transporter that functions as a high-glucose sensor, is required for conversion of Rgt1p into an activator by high levels of glucose [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RGT1

  • Here we provide evidence that the multicopy DDSE suppression is due to the titration of the Rgt1p transcriptional repressor [3].
  • Candidate target genes were verified by testing for Rgt1 binding to their promoters by chromatin immunoprecipitation and by measuring the regulation of the expression of promoter lacZ fusions [14].


  1. Grr1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is connected to the ubiquitin proteolysis machinery through Skp1: coupling glucose sensing to gene expression and the cell cycle. Li, F.N., Johnston, M. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Specificity and regulation of DNA binding by the yeast glucose transporter gene repressor Rgt1. Kim, J.H., Polish, J., Johnston, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. DDSE: downstream targets of the SNF3 signal transduction pathway. Theodoris, G., Bisson, L.F. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Two glucose-sensing pathways converge on Rgt1 to regulate expression of glucose transporter genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kim, J.H., Johnston, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. How the Rgt1 transcription factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by glucose. Polish, J.A., Kim, J.H., Johnston, M. Genetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. A glucose response element from the S. cerevisiae hexose transporter HXT1 gene is sensitive to glucose in human fibroblasts. Ferrer-Martínez, A., Riera, A., Jiménez-Chillarón, J.C., Herrero, P., Moreno, F., Gómez-Foix, A.M. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Rgt1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key regulator of glucose-induced genes, is both an activator and a repressor of transcription. Ozcan, S., Leong, T., Johnston, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Repression of transcription by Rgt1 in the absence of glucose requires Std1 and Mth1. Lakshmanan, J., Mosley, A.L., Ozcan, S. Curr. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. A genome-wide screen for site-specific DNA-binding proteins. Hazbun, T.R., Fields, S. Mol. Cell Proteomics (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Rgt1, a glucose sensing transcription factor, is required for transcriptional repression of the HXK2 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Palomino, A., Herrero, P., Moreno, F. Biochem. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Glucose-mediated phosphorylation converts the transcription factor Rgt1 from a repressor to an activator. Mosley, A.L., Lakshmanan, J., Aryal, B.K., Ozcan, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Three different regulatory mechanisms enable yeast hexose transporter (HXT) genes to be induced by different levels of glucose. Ozcan, S., Johnston, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Integration of transcriptional and posttranslational regulation in a glucose signal transduction pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kim, J.H., Brachet, V., Moriya, H., Johnston, M. Eukaryotic Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulatory network connecting two glucose signal transduction pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kaniak, A., Xue, Z., Macool, D., Kim, J.H., Johnston, M. Eukaryotic Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
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