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Gene Review

SUC2  -  beta-fructofuranosidase SUC2

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Beta-fructofuranosidase 2, Invertase 2, Saccharase, YIL162W
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High impact information on SUC2

  • The precursors were translated in a yeast lysate from mRNA obtained by in vitro transcription of the MF alpha 1 and SUC2 genes [1].
  • The SUC2 gene of yeast (Saccharomyces) encodes two forms of invertase: a secreted, glycosylated form, the synthesis of which is regulated by glucose repression, and an intracellular, nonglycosylated enzyme that is produced constitutively [2].
  • Two different histone acetyltransferases, Gcn5p and Esa1p, enhance the binding of SWI/SNF to the promoter during early transcription and are required for optimal SUC2 induction [3].
  • We show by time-course studies that transcriptional induction of the yeast glucose-regulated SUC2 gene is rapid and shows a striking biphasic pattern, the first phase of which is partly mediated by the general stress transcription factors Msn2p/Msn4p [3].
  • Here we present genetic evidence that depletion of cellular polyamines partially alleviates the defects in HO and SUC2 expression caused by inactivation of the GCN5 histone acetyltransferase [4].

Biological context of SUC2


Anatomical context of SUC2

  • For this purpose, membranes from sec18, SUC2 cells that are also defective in an outer chain alpha-1----3-mannosyltransferase (mnnl) are mixed with membranes from a strain that contains the transferase but is deficient in invertase (MNNl, delta SUC2) [10].
  • Sc. pombe cells are able to produce enzymatically active invertase from the S. cerevisiae SUC2 gene introduced by transformation and the enzyme is glycosylated and secreted into the cell wall [11].
  • First, the expression of the SUC2 gene was maintained throughout growth in immobilized cells, whereas its expression was only transient in free cells [12].
  • These results suggested that in mammalian cells the SUC2 signal sequence was functional in directing the heterologous multimeric proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in secretion of the active proteins [13].

Associations of SUC2 with chemical compounds

  • Surprisingly, however, mutant forms of the yeast PP1 homologue Glc7, which are unable to repress expression of another glucose-regulated gene, SUC2, fully repressed ADH2 [14].
  • Mutants of S. cerevisiae strain S288C (SUC2+) unable to grow anaerobically on sucrose, but still able to use glucose, were isolated [15].
  • The snf1 mutations were found to be pleiotropic, preventing sucrose utilization by SUC2+ and SUC7+ strains, and also preventing utilization of galactose, maltose and several nonfermentable carbon sources [15].
  • Thus we suggest that Gts1p plays a major role in the oscillatory expression of TPS1 and SUC2 in continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and hypothesized that Gts1p stabilizes oscillations in energy metabolism by activating trehalose synthesis to facilitate glycolysis at the shift from the respiratory to the respiro-fermentative phase [16].
  • To analyze the role of this motif in yeast, we constructed a SUC2-WBP1 chimera consisting of the coding sequence for the normally secreted glycoprotein invertase fused to the coding sequence of the COOH terminus (including the transmembrane domain and 16-amino acid cytoplasmic tail) of Wbplp [17].

Physical interactions of SUC2

  • Mutations of the two Mig1 binding sites in the SUC2 promoter resulted in loss of activation of SUC2 expression [18].
  • STD1 (MSN3) interacts directly with the TATA-binding protein and modulates transcription of the SUC2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [19].
  • The formation of nuclease-resistant chromatin does not require the GC boxes, indicating that other cis-acting elements can serve to recruit the Ssn6-Tup1 co-repressor complex to the SUC2 promoter [20].
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate using gel mobility shift analysis that Hxk2 participates in DNA-protein complexes with cis-acting regulatory elements of the SUC2 gene promoter [21].
  • We found that SKO1 also binds to a CRE-like site in SUC2, a yeast gene encoding invertase which is under positive control by cAMP [22].

Regulatory relationships of SUC2

  • We show that mig1 acts synergistically with ssn2 through ssn5, ssn7, and ssn8 to relieve glucose repression of SUC2 and to suppress the requirement for SNF1 [9].
  • Glucose-mediated repression of PRB1 is not subject to the same genetic controls as SUC2 [23].
  • Std1 mutants that lost the ability to induce SUC2, were also unable to suppress the growth defect caused by the expression of the dominant negative TBPDelta57 protein, suggesting that these two genetic screens may be detecting the same biological activity [24].
  • Overexpression of MIG2 represses SUC2 under nonrepressing conditions, and a LexA-Mig2p fusion represses transcription of a lexO-containing promoter in a glucose-dependent manner, supporting the idea that Mig2p is a glucose-activated repressor [25].
  • On the other hand, expression of cNPK5 failed to suppress the growth defect of the snf4 mutant cells in the presence of sucrose and to induce expression of the SUC2 gene [26].

Other interactions of SUC2

  • Altered in vivo Dam methylase sensitivity is observed at two HPR1-dependent promoters (GAL1 and SUC2) [27].
  • Mutation of GCN5 or SNF2 lead to substantially reduced SUC2 expression; in gnc5 there is no reduction in basal H3 acetylation, but large reductions occur on derepression [7].
  • No invertase activity was detected in suc2 mutants,--The SNF1 locus is not tightly linked to SUC2 [15].
  • In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucose repression of SUC2 transcription requires the SSN6-TUP1 repressor complex [9].
  • Mutations in the SNF7 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevent full derepression of the SUC2 (invertase) gene in response to glucose limitation [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SUC2


  1. Secretion in yeast: reconstitution of the translocation and glycosylation of alpha-factor and invertase in a homologous cell-free system. Rothblatt, J.A., Meyer, D.I. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Two differentially regulated mRNAs with different 5' ends encode secreted with intracellular forms of yeast invertase. Carlson, M., Botstein, D. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Roles of SWI/SNF and HATs throughout the dynamic transcription of a yeast glucose-repressible gene. Geng, F., Laurent, B.C. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Functional interaction between GCN5 and polyamines: a new role for core histone acetylation. Pollard, K.J., Samuels, M.L., Crowley, K.A., Hansen, J.C., Peterson, C.L. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Std1 and Mth1 proteins interact with the glucose sensors to control glucose-regulated gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Schmidt, M.C., McCartney, R.R., Zhang, X., Tillman, T.S., Solimeo, H., Wölfl, S., Almonte, C., Watkins, S.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. SSN20 is an essential gene with mutant alleles that suppress defects in SUC2 transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Neigeborn, L., Celenza, J.L., Carlson, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. A short-range gradient of histone H3 acetylation and Tup1p redistribution at the promoter of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 gene. Boukaba, A., Georgieva, E.I., Myers, F.A., Thorne, A.W., López-Rodas, G., Crane-Robinson, C., Franco, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Trumbly, R.J. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Synergistic release from glucose repression by mig1 and ssn mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Vallier, L.G., Carlson, M. Genetics (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Interorganelle transfer and glycosylation of yeast invertase in vitro. Haselbeck, A., Schekman, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Synthesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase by Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Sánchez, Y., Moreno, S., Rodríguez, L. FEBS Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Clues to the origin of high external invertase activity in immobilized growing yeast: prolonged SUC2 transcription and less susceptibility of the enzyme to endogenous proteolysis. de Alteriis, E., Alepuz, P.M., Estruch, F., Parascandola, P. Can. J. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Secretion of active Fc fragments of immunoglobulin E directed by the yeast invertase signal sequence in mammalian cells. Kamiya, T., Sugio, S., Yamanouchi, K., Kagitani, Y. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Functional analysis of the yeast Glc7-binding protein Reg1 identifies a protein phosphatase type 1-binding motif as essential for repression of ADH2 expression. Dombek, K.M., Voronkova, V., Raney, A., Young, E.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Mutants of yeast defective in sucrose utilization. Carlson, M., Osmond, B.C., Botstein, D. Genetics (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Gts1p stabilizes oscillations in energy metabolism by activating the transcription of TPS1 encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Xu, Z., Yaguchi, S., Tsurugi, K. Biochem. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Signal-mediated retrieval of a membrane protein from the Golgi to the ER in yeast. Gaynor, E.C., te Heesen, S., Graham, T.R., Aebi, M., Emr, S.D. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Multiple regulatory proteins mediate repression and activation by interaction with the yeast Mig1 binding site. Wu, J., Trumbly, R.J. Yeast (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. STD1 (MSN3) interacts directly with the TATA-binding protein and modulates transcription of the SUC2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tillman, T.S., Ganster, R.W., Jiang, R., Carlson, M., Schmidt, M.C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification of cis-acting elements in the SUC2 promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae required for activation of transcription. Bu, Y., Schmidt, M.C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. The hexokinase 2 protein participates in regulatory DNA-protein complexes necessary for glucose repression of the SUC2 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Herrero, P., Martínez-Campa, C., Moreno, F. FEBS Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Yeast SKO1 gene encodes a bZIP protein that binds to the CRE motif and acts as a repressor of transcription. Nehlin, J.O., Carlberg, M., Ronne, H. Nucleic Acids Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Consequences of growth media, gene copy number, and regulatory mutations on the expression of the PRB1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moehle, C.M., Jones, E.W. Genetics (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Amino acid residues in Std1 protein required for induction of SUC2 transcription are also required for suppression of TBPDelta57 growth defect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Zhang, X., Shen, W., Schmidt, M.C. Gene (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Two zinc-finger-containing repressors are responsible for glucose repression of SUC2 expression. Lutfiyya, L.L., Johnston, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Characterization of tobacco protein kinase NPK5, a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1 that constitutively activates expression of the glucose-repressible SUC2 gene for a secreted invertase of S. cerevisiae. Muranaka, T., Banno, H., Machida, Y. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. HPR1 encodes a global positive regulator of transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Zhu, Y., Peterson, C.L., Christman, M.F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular and genetic analysis of the SNF7 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tu, J., Vallier, L.G., Carlson, M. Genetics (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. The GAM1/SNF2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a highly charged nuclear protein required for transcription of the STA1 gene. Yoshimoto, H., Yamashita, I. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Gln3p and Nil1p regulation of invertase activity and SUC2 expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Oliveira, E.M., Mansure, J.J., Bon, E.P. FEMS Yeast Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Glycosylation of the overlapping sequons in yeast external invertase: effect of amino acid variation on site selectivity in vivo and in vitro. Reddy, A., Gibbs, B.S., Liu, Y.L., Coward, J.K., Changchien, L.M., Maley, F. Glycobiology (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Analysis by atomic force microscopy of Med8 binding to cis-acting regulatory elements of the SUC2 and HXK2 genes of saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreno-Herrero, F., Herrero, P., Colchero, J., Baró, A.M., Moreno, F. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Polymeric SUC genes in natural populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Naumov, G.I., Naumova, E.S., Sancho, E.D., Korhola, M.P. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
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