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Gene Review

PEX16  -  peroxisomal biogenesis factor 16

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: PBD8A, PBD8B, Peroxin-16, Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 16, Peroxisomal membrane protein PEX16
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High impact information on PEX16

  • The origin and maintenance of mammalian peroxisomes involves a de novo PEX16-dependent pathway from the ER [1].
  • We further show that PEX16 regulates this process by being cotranslationally inserted into the ER and serving to recruit other peroxisomal membrane proteins to membranes [1].
  • We propose that peroxisomes may form by either of two pathways: one that involves PEX11-mediated division of preexisting peroxisomes, and another that involves PEX16-mediated formation of peroxisomes in the absence of preexisting peroxisomes [2].
  • Mutation in PEX16 is causal in the peroxisome-deficient Zellweger syndrome of complementation group D [3].
  • PBDD-01-derived PEX16 cDNA was defective in peroxisome-restoring activity when expressed in the patient's fibroblasts [3].

Biological context of PEX16


Anatomical context of PEX16

  • In the search for Pex16p topogenic sequence, basic amino acids clustered sequence, RKELRKKLPVSLSQQK, at positions 66-81 and the first transmembrane segment locating far downstream, nearly by 40 amino acids, of this basic region were defined to be essential for integration into peroxisome membranes [6].
  • Here we have determined the membrane topology of Pex16p by differential permeabilization method: both N- and C-terminal parts are exposed to the cytosol [6].
  • Biogenesis of the mammalian peroxisomal membrane requires the action of Pex3p and Pex16p, two proteins present in the organelle membrane, and Pex19p, a protein that displays a dual subcellular distribution (peroxisomal and cytosolic) [7].
  • We have studied the trafficking in human fibroblasts of three peroxisomal membrane proteins, Pex2p, Pex3p and Pex16p, all of which have been suggested to transit the endoplasmic reticulum before arriving in peroxisomes [8].

Associations of PEX16 with chemical compounds

  • Results from more recent studies of various plant PMPs including ascorbate peroxidase, PEX10 and PEX16, as well as a viral replication protein, have since led to the formulation of a more elaborate "ER semi-autonomous peroxisome maturation and replication" model [9].

Other interactions of PEX16

  • The observation that cells deficient in the peroxins Pex3p, Pex16p, and Pex19p lack peroxisomal membrane structures suggests that these molecules are involved in the initial stages of peroxisomal membrane formation [10].
  • Pex19p interacts with multiple membrane peroxins, including other membrane biogenesis peroxins, Pex16p and Pex26p, involved in matrix protein import [11].
  • Only Pex16p is absent in most yeast species, with the exception of Yarrowia lipolytica, but this peroxin is present in all filamentous fungi [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PEX16

  • However, pretreatment of the cells with nocodazol, prior to microinjection, resulted in the inhibition of complementation of the PEX16 mutant and the cytosolic location of the EGFP-SKL [5].


  1. The origin and maintenance of mammalian peroxisomes involves a de novo PEX16-dependent pathway from the ER. Kim, P.K., Mullen, R.T., Schumann, U., Lippincott-Schwartz, J. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Peroxisome synthesis in the absence of preexisting peroxisomes. South, S.T., Gould, S.J. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutation in PEX16 is causal in the peroxisome-deficient Zellweger syndrome of complementation group D. Honsho, M., Tamura, S., Shimozawa, N., Suzuki, Y., Kondo, N., Fujiki, Y. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Clinical, biochemical and genetic aspects and neuronal migration in peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Suzuki, Y., Shimozawa, N., Imamura, A., Fukuda, S., Zhang, Z., Orii, T., Kondo, N. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Requirement for microtubules and dynein motors in the earliest stages of peroxisome biogenesis. Brocard, C.B., Boucher, K.K., Jedeszko, C., Kim, P.K., Walton, P.A. Traffic (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The membrane biogenesis peroxin Pex16p. Topogenesis and functional roles in peroxisomal membrane assembly. Honsho, M., Hiroshige, T., Fujiki, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The Import Competence of a Peroxisomal Membrane Protein Is Determined by Pex19p before the Docking Step. Pinto, M.P., Grou, C.P., Alencastre, I.S., Oliveira, M.E., S??-Miranda, C., Fransen, M., Azevedo, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Peroxisomal membrane proteins are properly targeted to peroxisomes in the absence of COPI- and COPII-mediated vesicular transport. Voorn-Brouwer, T., Kragt, A., Tabak, H.F., Distel, B. J. Cell. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The ER-peroxisome connection in plants: Development of the "ER semi-autonomous peroxisome maturation and replication" model for plant peroxisome biogenesis. Mullen, R.T., Trelease, R.N. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Human pex19p binds peroxisomal integral membrane proteins at regions distinct from their sorting sequences. Fransen, M., Wylin, T., Brees, C., Mannaerts, G.P., Van Veldhoven, P.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. In vitro transport of membrane proteins to peroxisomes by shuttling receptor Pex19p. Matsuzono, Y., Fujiki, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. PEX Genes in Fungal Genomes: Common, Rare or Redundant. Kiel, J.A., Veenhuis, M., van der Klei, I.J. Traffic (2006) [Pubmed]
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